Anda di halaman 1dari 47

Fish Morphology

Jaw Development

agnathostome 1st appeared 400 mya


Classification Scheme of the Vertebrates

Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Agnatha Class Chondrichthyes Class Osteichthyes Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves Class Mammalia

Basic Anatomy
Class Agnatha

Lack jaws, paired fins, scales Possess medial nostril, medial fins, notocord rather than vertebral column

Basic Anatomy

Class Chondrichthyes
Sharks, skates, rays

Posses jaws with teeth, cartilaginous skeleton, paired fins Scales (denticles) have same origin and composition as teeth Possesses 5-7 gills Spiral valve intestine Ureoosmotic strategy Lateral line No swim bladder Heterocercal tail Relatively unchanged (480 mybp)

Basic Anatomy

Class Osteichthyes

Posses jaws with teeth, bony skeleton, paired fins 4 paired gill arches covered by operculum Intestine- simple, no spiral valve Swim bladder Lateral line Homocercal tail Scales- cycloid, ctenoid

Basic Anatomy bony fish

Basic Anatomy


Swim bladder modified to lungs Paired appendages May have given rise to terrestrial tetrapods Bony head Scales and teeth

Fish Adaptations and Life Styles

General Life Style Categories a. pelagic cruisers
1. occurring in water column far away from the bottom (benthic) environment 2. often referred to as "blue water" 3. includes tuna, billfish, blue sharks, mackerel sharks (great whites and mako sharks) X

b. demersal

X 1. bottom-associated fishes, but not usually sitting on the bottom 2. rely on the benthic environment as a source of food, place to reproduce, and/or place of refuge, etc. 3. includes most reef fishes (e.g., butterfly fishes, surgeon fishes, wrasses, parrot fishes, etc.)

c. benthic

1. bottom-dwelling fishes that spend the majority of time sitting on the bottom 2. includes flatfishes, lizard fishes, many scorpion fishes, many hawkfishes, gobies, etc.

Body shape


1) fusiform a) = torpedo-shaped b) allows minimal drag while swimming c) best shape for a pelagic cruise

2) compressed
a) laterally flattened (e.g., butterflyfishes & surgeonfishes) b) allows for maneuverability in surge environments c) useful for demersal fishes that hover above the reef d) exception seen in flatfishes that lie on one side of the body as benthic fishes

3) elongated or attenuated

a) long body (e.g., trumpetfish, cornetfish, eels) b) seen in demersal fish that either hover motionless in the water) c) seen also in benthic fishes (e.g., eels) that hide in holes in the reef

4) depressed

a) dorso-ventrally flattened (e.g., frogfishes, scorpionfishes & gobies) b) broad ventral surface facilitates resting on the bottom c) seen in many benthic fishes

Body Coloration

1) source of color a) pigment color - chromatophores for yellows, reds, oranges, browns, & blacks b) structural color - iridophores (reflection) & light refraction for blues, silvers, & rainbows

2) patterns (pp. 152-153)

a) countershading

1) dark blue or black dorsally, white or silvery ventrally 2) results in blue water "camouflage 3) observed most frequently in pelagic cruisers

b) camouflage X 1) matching the background coloration 2) usually involves having irregular dark blotches and spots 3) typically seen in benthic fishes, especially benthic ambush predators (e.g., frogfishes, gobies, & many scorpionfishes) 4) some fishes (e.g., flatfishes) may exhibit rapid color changes in response to different backgrounds

b) camouflage

5) matching downwelling light

Hatchet fish

Cookie cutter shark


disruptive coloration
1) 2) 3)

color pattern breaks up the silhouette of the fish may involve dark bars across the eye and tail region seen in many demersal fishes such as butterflyfishes


bars and stripes X 1) bars are vertical (e.g., manini) 2) stripes are horizontal (e.g., ta'ape) 3) seen frequently in schooling demersal fishes 4) may confuse potential predators by making it difficult to select individual prey from the school


misdirection 1) false eye spots, etc. 2) observed in many demersal butterflyfishes


advertising coloration X 1) bright, obvious color patterns 2) possible functions a) advertising a cleaning station (e.g., cleaner wrasses) b) advertising a warning (e.g., nohu) c) advertising for mates (e.g., male parrotfishes)

Hawaiian cleaner wrasse



mimicry X 1) imitating other creatures 2) seen in a few demersal and benthic fishes 3) examples a) blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus) mimics cleaner wrasses


shortnose wrasse mimics Potter's angel which sports a defensive spine


mimicry 4) leafy sea dragon (Australia)

h) uniform red coloration

1) most often observed in deep-dwelling or night active demersal fishes 2) examples include opakapaka, oweoweo, menpachi, & squirrelfishes

i) X j) k)

noctural versus diurnal color changes male versus female color differences juvenile versus adult color differences

Bluehead wrasse Stoplight parrotfish

Dragon wrasse

Fish locomotion

Countercurrent Exchange

Respiratory and Circulatory System


Inside lateral line canal

Fish adaptation to buoyancy in water

Swim bladder

Large liver and heterocercal tail

Buoyancy Compensator Device (BCD)

Rete mirable


Osmoregulation- the control of the concentration of body fluids. Diffusion- movement of substance from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration Osmosis- diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane

Marine Fish: hypoosmotic

H2O continually leaves body Less salt than external environment

continually drinks seawater

excretes salt through gills

produces small amts of dilute urine

Freshwater Fish: hyperosmotic

H2O continually enters body

does not drinks water

produces large amts of dilute urine

More salt than external environment

Shark and Coelacanth: ureoosmotic

Maintains high levels of urea and TMAO in blood

excretes salt through rectal gland


Hagfish: ionosmotic

Seawater concentration = internal concentration

Osmolarity in Freshwater and Saltwater

Osmolarity- measure of total solutes(dissolved particles) Ions Na+ ClCa++ Total FW m osmol/l SW m osmol/l 1 470 1 550 variable 10 10 1000

Habitat seawater hagfish (Myxine) lamprey Goldfish (Carassius) Toadfish (Opsanus) sw sw fw fw sw Na+ 478 537 120 115 160 Cl558 542 96 107 Urea

Crab-eating frog (Rana)

Dogfish freshwater ray coelacanth

sw fw sw

287 150 197

240 149 199

354 <1 350