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Chapter 3

Cell Structure and Function

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Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University

Processes of Life

Growth Reproduction Responsiveness Metabolism

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Figure 3.1 Examples of types of cells-overview

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: An Overview

Prokaryotes
Lack nucleus Lack various internal structures bound with phospholipid membranes Are small (~1.0 m in diameter) Have a simple structure Include bacteria and archaea

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Figure 3.2 Typical prokaryotic cell

Inclusions

Ribosome

Cytoplasm Nucleoid Glycocalyx Flagellum

Cell wall

Cytoplasmic membrane

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: An Overview

Eukaryotes
Have nucleus Have internal membrane-bound organelles Are larger (10100 m in diameter) Have more complex structure Include algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants

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Figure 3.3 Typical eukaryotic cell

Nuclear envelope

Nuclear pore
Nucleolus Lysosome Mitochondrion Centriole Secretory vesicle Cilium

Golgi body
Transport vesicles

Ribosomes

Rough endoplasmic reticulum


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Cytoplasmic membrane Cytoskeleton

Figure 3.4 Approximate size of various types of cells

Virus Orthopoxvirus 0.3 m diameter Bacterium Staphylococcus 1 m diameter

Chicken egg 4.7 cm diameter (47,000 m)*

Parasitic protozoan Giardia 14 m length *Actually, the inset box on the egg would be too small to be visible. (Width of box would be about 0.002 mm.)

External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Glycocalyces
Gelatinous, sticky substance surrounding the outside of the cell Composed of polysaccharides, polypeptides, or both

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External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Two Types of Glycocalyces


Capsule
Composed of organized repeating units of organic chemicals Firmly attached to cell surface May prevent bacteria from being recognized by host

Slime layer
Loosely attached to cell surface Water soluble Sticky layer allows prokaryotes to attach to surfaces
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Figure 3.5 Glycocalyces-overview

Glycocalyx (capsule)

Glycocalyx (slime layer)

External Structures of Bacterial Cells

ANIMATION Motility

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External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Flagella
Are responsible for movement Have long structures that extend beyond cell surface Are not present on all bacteria

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External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Flagella
Structure
Composed of filament, hook, and basal body Basal body anchors filament and hook to cell wall by a rod and a series of either two or four rings of integral proteins

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External Structures of Bacterial Cells

ANIMATION Flagella: Structure

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Figure 3.6 Proximal structure of bacterial flagella-overview


Filament Direction of rotation during run

Rod

Peptidoglycan layer (cell wall)

Protein rings Cytoplasmic membrane Cytoplasm

Filament

Gram

Gram Basal body

Outer protein rings Rod Integral protein Inner protein rings Integral protein

Outer membrane Peptidoglycan layer Cytoplasmic membrane

Cell wall

Cytoplasm

Figure 3.7 Micrographs of basic arrangements of bacterial flagella-overview

External Structures of Bacterial Cells

ANIMATION Flagella: Arrangement ANIMATION Flagella: Spirochetes

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Figure 3.8 Axial filament-overview

Endoflagella rotate Axial filament

Axial filament rotates around cell Outer membrane

Cytoplasmic membrane

Spirochete corkscrews and moves forward

Axial filament

External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Flagella
Function
Rotation propels bacterium through environment Rotation reversible; can be counterclockwise or clockwise Bacteria move in response to stimuli (taxis) Runs Tumbles

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Figure 3.9 Motion of a peritrichous bacterium

Attractant
Run Tumble

Run

Tumble

External Structures of Bacterial Cells

ANIMATION Flagella: Movement

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External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Fimbriae and Pili


Rodlike proteinaceous extensions

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External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Fimbriae Sticky, bristlelike projections Used by bacteria to adhere to one another, to hosts, and to substances in environment Shorter than flagella Serve an important function in biofilms

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Figure 3.10 Fimbriae

Flagellum

Fimbria

External Structures of Bacterial Cells

Pili
Special type of fimbria Also known as conjugation pili Longer than other fimbriae but shorter than flagella Bacteria typically have only one or two per cell Mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (conjugation)

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Figure 3.11 Pili

Conjugation pilus

Bacterial Cell Walls

Bacterial Cell Walls


Provide structure and shape and protect cell from osmotic forces Assist some cells in attaching to other cells or in resisting antimicrobial drugs Can target cell wall of bacteria with antibiotics Give bacterial cells characteristic shapes Composed of peptidoglycan Scientists describe two basic types of bacterial cell walls, Gram-positive and Gram-negative

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Figure 3.12 Bacterial shapes and arrangements-overview

Figure 3.13 Comparison of the structures of glucose, NAG, and NAM-overview

Glucose

N-acetylglucosamine NAG

N-acetylmuramic acid NAM

Bacterial Cell Walls

Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Walls


Relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan Contain unique polyalcohols called teichoic acids Appear purple following Gram staining procedure Up to 60% mycolic acid in acid-fast bacteria helps cells survive desiccation

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Figure 3.15a Comparison of cell walls of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Peptidoglycan layer (cell wall) Cytoplasmic membrane

Gram-positive cell wall

Lipoteichoic acid

Teichoic acid Integral protein

Bacterial Cell Walls

Gram-Negative Bacterial Cell Walls


Have only a thin layer of peptidoglycan Bilayer membrane outside the peptidoglycan contains phospholipids, proteins, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) May be impediment to the treatment of disease Appear pink following Gram staining procedure

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Figure 3.15b Comparison of cell walls of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Porin

Outer membrane of cell wall Peptidoglycan layer of cell wall

Porin (sectioned)

Periplasmic space

Gram-negative cell wall

Cytoplasmic membrane

n
O side chain (varies In length and composition)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Integral proteins

Phospholipid layers

Core polysaccharide

Lipid A (embedded in outer membrane)

Fatty acid

Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

Structure
Referred to as phospholipid bilayer
Composed of lipids and associated proteins

Fluid mosaic model describes current understanding of membrane structure

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Figure 3.16 The structure of a prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane: a phospholipid bilayer

Head, which contains phosphate (hydrophilic) Tail (hydrophobic)

Phospholipid

Integral proteins Cytoplasm Integral protein

Phospholipid bilayer

Peripheral protein Integral protein

Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

Function
Energy storage Harvest light energy in photosynthetic bacteria Selectively permeable Naturally impermeable to most substances Proteins allow substances to cross membrane Maintain concentration and electrical gradient

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Figure 3.17 Electrical potential of a cytoplasmic membrane

Cell exterior (extracellular fluid)

Cytoplasmic membrane

Integral protein

Protein

DNA Protein

Cell interior (cytoplasm)

Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

Function
Passive processes
Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis

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Figure 3.18 Passive processes of movement across a cytoplasmic membrane-overview

Extracellular fluid

Cytoplasm

Diffusion
through the phospholipid bilayer

Facilitated diffusion
through a nonspecific channel protein

Facilitated diffusion
through a permease specific for one chemical; binding of substrate causes shape change in the channel protein

Osmosis,
the diffusion of water through a specific channel protein or through the phospholipid bilayer

Figure 3.19 Osmosis, the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane-overview

Solutes

Semipermeable membrane allows movement of H2O, but not of solutes

Figure 3.20 Effects of isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions on cells-overview

Cells without a wall (e.g., mycoplasmas, animal cells)

H2O

H2O H2O

Cell wall

Cell wall

Cells with a wall (e.g., plants, fungal and bacterial cells)

H2O

H2O

H2O

Cell membrane

Cell membrane

Isotonic solution

Hypertonic solution

Hypotonic solution

Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

Function
Active processes
Active transport

Group translocation
Substance chemically modified during transport

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Figure 3.21 Mechanisms of active transport-overview

Extracellular fluid Uniport

Cytoplasmic membrane

Symport Cytoplasm

Uniport

Antiport

Coupled transport: uniport and symport

Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

ANIMATION Active Transport: Overview ANIMATION Active Transport: Types

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Figure 3.22 Group translocation

Glucose Extracellular fluid

Cytoplasm Glucose 6-PO4

Cytoplasm of Bacteria

Cytosol Liquid portion of cytoplasm Inclusions May include reserve deposits of chemicals Endospores Unique structures produced by some bacteria that are a defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions

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Figure 3.23 Granules of PHB in the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum

Polyhydroxybutyrate

Figure 3.24 The formation of an endospore-overview

Cell wall DNA is replicated.

Cytoplasmic membrane A cortex of calcium and dipicolinic acid is deposited between the membranes. Cortex

DNA

Vegetative cell
Spore coat forms around endospore. Spore coat

DNA aligns along the cells long axis.

Cytoplasmic membrane invaginates to form forespore.

Forespore

Endospore matures: completion of spore coat and increase in resistance to heat and chemicals by unknown process.

Outer spore coat

Endospore

Endospore is released from original cell. Cytoplasmic membrane grows and engulfs forespore within a second membrane. Vegetative cells DNA disintegrates. First membrane

Outer spore coat

Second membrane

Cytoplasm of Bacteria

Nonmembranous Organelles
Ribosomes
Sites of protein synthesis

Cytoskeleton
Plays a role in forming the cells basic shape

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Figure 3.25 A simple helical cytoskeleton

External Structures of Archaea

Glycocalyces
Function in the formation of biofilms Adhere cells to one another and inanimate objects

Flagella
Consist of basal body, hook, and filament Numerous differences with bacterial flagella

Fimbriae and Hami


Many archaea have fimbriae Some make fimbriae-like structures called hami
Function to attach archaea to surfaces
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Figure 3.26 Archaeal hami

Hamus Grappling hook

Prickles

Archaeal Cell Walls and Cytoplasmic Membrane

Most archaea have cell walls


Do not have peptidoglycan Contain variety of specialized polysaccharides and proteins

All archaea have cytoplasmic membranes


Maintain electrical and chemical gradients Control import and export of substances from the cell

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Figure 3.27 Representative shapes of archaea-overview

Cytoplasm of Archaea

Archaeal cytoplasm similar to bacterial cytoplasm


Have 70S ribosomes Fibrous cytoskeleton Circular DNA

Archaeal cytoplasm also differs from bacterial cytoplasm


Different ribosomal proteins Different metabolic enzymes to make RNA Genetic code more similar to eukaryotes

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External Structure of Eukaryotic Cells

Glycocalyces
Never as organized as prokaryotic capsules Help anchor animal cells to each other Strengthen cell surface Provide protection against dehydration Function in cell-to-cell recognition and communication

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Eukaryotic Cell Walls

Fungi, algae, plants, and some protozoa have cell walls Composed of various polysaccharides
Plant cell walls composed of cellulose Fungal cell walls composed of cellulose, chitin, and/or glucomannan Algal cell walls composed of a variety of polysaccharides

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Figure 3.28 A eukaryotic cell wall

Cell wall

Cytoplasmic membrane

Eukaryotic Cytoplasmic Membranes

All eukaryotic cells have cytoplasmic membrane Are a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins Contain steroid lipids to help maintain fluidity Contain regions of lipids and proteins called membrane rafts Control movement into and out of cell

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Figure 3.29 Eukaryotic cytoplasmic membrane

Cytoplasmic membrane Intercellular matrix Cytoplasmic membrane

Figure 3.30 Endocytosis-overview

Pseudopodium

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Flagella
Structure and arrangement
Differ structurally and functionally from prokaryotic flagella Within the cytoplasmic membrane Shaft composed of tubulin arranged to form microtubules Filaments anchored to cell by basal body May be single or multiple

Function
Do not rotate but undulate rhythmically
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Figure 3.31a Eukaryotic flagella and cilia

Flagellum

Figure 3.31b Eukaryotic flagella and cilia

Cilia

Figure 3.32 Movement of eukaryotic flagella and cilia-overview

Direction of motion

Flagella
Direction of motion

Cilia

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Cilia
Shorter and more numerous than flagella Coordinated beating propels cells through their environment Also used to move substances past the surface of the cell

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Figure 3.31c Eukaryotic flagella and cilia

Cytoplasmic membrane

Cytosol Central pair microtubules Microtubules (doublet) 9 2 arrangement

Cytoplasmic membrane

Basal body

. ..
Microtubules (triplet)

Portion cut away to show transition area from doublets to triplets and the end of central microtubules

9 0 arrangement

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Other Nonmembranous Organelles


Ribosomes
Larger than prokaryotic ribosomes (80S versus 70S) Composed of 60S and 40S subunits

Cytoskeleton
Extensive network of fibers and tubules Anchors organelles Produces basic shape of the cell Made up of tubulin microtubules, actin microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

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Figure 3.33 Eukaryotic cytoskeleton-overview

Microtubule

Microfilament
Actin subunit

Intermediate filament
Tubulin Protein subunits

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Other Nonmembranous Organelles


Centrioles and centrosome
Centrioles play a role in mitosis, cytokinesis, and formation of flagella and cilia Centrosome is region of cytoplasm where centrioles are found

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Figure 3.34 Centrosome-overview

Centrosome (made up of two centrioles)

Microtubules

Triplet

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Membranous Organelles
Nucleus
Often largest organelle in cell Contains most of the cells DNA Nucleoplasm Contains chromatin Nucleoli present in nucleoplasm; RNA synthesized in nucleoli Surrounded by nuclear envelope

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Figure 3.35 Eukaryotic nucleus

Nucleolus Nucleoplasm

Chromatin Nuclear envelope


Two phospholipid bilayers Nuclear pores Rough ER

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Membranous Organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum
Netlike arrangement of flattened, hollow tubules continuous with nuclear envelope Functions as transport system Two forms Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

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Figure 3.36 Endoplasmic reticulum

Membrane-bound ribosomes Mitochondrion

Free ribosome

Rough endoplasmic Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) reticulum (RER)

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Membranous Organelles
Golgi body
Flattened hollow sacs surrounded by phospholipid bilayer Receives, processes, and packages large molecules for export from cell Packages molecules in secretory vesicles Not in all eukaryotic cells

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Figure 3.37 Golgi body

Secretory vesicles

Vesicles arriving from ER

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Membranous Organelles
Lysosomes, peroxisomes, vacuoles, and vesicles
Store and transfer chemicals within cells May store nutrients in cell Lysosomes contain catabolic enzymes Peroxisomes contain enzymes that degrade poisonous wastes

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Figure 3.38 Vacuole

Cell wall Nucleus Central vacuole Cytoplasm

Figure 3.39 The roles of vesicles in the destruction of a phagocytized pathogen within a white blood cell

Endocytosis
(phagocytosis) Bacterium

Phagosome (food vesicle)

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Transport vesicle

Vesicle fuses with a lysosome

Lysosome

Phagolysosome

Golgi body

Secretory vesicle

Exocytosis
(elimination, secretion)

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Membranous Organelles
Mitochondria
Have two membranes composed of phospholipid bilayer Produce most of cells ATP Interior matrix contains 70S ribosomes and molecule of DNA

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Figure 3.40 Mitochondrion

Outer membrane

Inner membrane
Crista

Matrix Ribosomes

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Membranous Organelles
Chloroplasts
Light-harvesting structures found in photosynthetic eukaryotes Have two phospholipid bilayer membranes and DNA Have 70S ribosomes

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Figure 3.41 Chloroplast

Granum

Stroma Thylakoid space

Thylakoid
Inner bilayer membrane Outer bilayer membrane

Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes

Endosymbiotic Theory
Eukaryotes formed from union of small aerobic prokaryotes with larger anaerobic prokaryotes Smaller prokaryotes became internal parasites
Parasites lost ability to exist independently Larger cell became dependent on parasites for aerobic ATP production Aerobic prokaryotes evolved into mitochondria Similar scenario for origin of chloroplasts

Not universally accepted

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