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Subatomic Particles The Nucleus Consists of Protons and Neutrons. In the centre of an atom.

m. Has an positive charge due to the protons. Almost the entire mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. Tiny compared to the rest of the atom. Electrons Occupy shells/energy levels which orbit the nucleus. They are negatively charged. The volume of their orbit determines the size of the atom. Electrons practically explain the whole of chemistry.

Sub-atomic Particle Proton

Mass 1

Charge +1




Atomic Number & Atomic Mass The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is its atomic number (proton number) Atoms with the same atomic number belong to the same element. Atoms with different atomic numbers belong to different elements. Elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons within the atom. The atomic mass of an atom is the total number of protons added to the total number of neutrons. This quantity of neutrons Can be calculated by taking the atomic number from the atomic mass. Electronic Structure and Energy Levels First energy level (shell) can only hold two electrons. The maximum amount of electrons on the other energy levels (in the first twenty elements) is 8. The total number of electrons is the same as the atom number e.g. 2,8,3 = 13 (Atomic number of Al) The number of energy levels (shells) is determined by the period number in the periodic table. The amount of electrons of the highest occupied energy level is determined by the group.

Elements, Compounds, Isotopes and the Periodic Table Elements Elements consist of one type of atom only. Common elements are Aluminium, Oxygen and Carbon. Compounds Formed where two or more elements chemically react together. Generally difficult to separate the two reactants out again. Properties of a compound are totally different from the properties of the original elements. Isotopes Isotopes are different atomic forms of the same element which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. The different number of neutrons doesnt affect the chemical behaviour of the element at all. The Periodic Table The group number reveals the number of electrons on the outer shell (the highest occupied energy level) The period determines the quantity of energy levels for an atomic diagram. Elements with similar properties form columns.

Ions and Ionic Bonds Ions An Ion is a charged particle which is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons. It has the same electronic structure as one of the noble gases in Group 0 of the Periodic Table. The charge of an ion is shown at the top right of its symbol. Ions are strongly attracted to each other; electron static attraction between the positively charged ions and the negatively charged ions. Positive Ions Hydrogen and metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions. A metal atom loses the electrons from its highest occupied energy level (outer shell) The charge of the ion is the same as the group number of the original element. Sodium is in group 1 and forms Na+ ions; Magnesium in group 2 forms Mg2+ ions. Negative Ions Non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions. A non-metal atom gains enough electrons to complete its highest occupied energy level. The number of charges on the ion is 8 minus the group number of the original non-metal element. For example, Oxygen is in Group 6 and forms the Oxygen ion 02Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds are chemical reactions between a metal atom and a non-metal atom. Electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the non-metal atom. The substance formed as a result of these bonds is known as an ionic compound.

Ionic Compounds + Giant Ionic Structures Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are substances that are made as a result of chemical reactions between a metal atom and a non metal atom. These contain positive and negative ions held together in a giant structure. There is a strong force of electrostatic attraction between these oppositely charged ions which acts in all directions; entitled ionic bonding. Ionic Compounds have regular structures called giant ionic lattices. These giant ionic lattices have high melting points and high boiling points. Ionic Compounds do not conduct electricity in solid form, but they do when melted/dissolved in solution as the ions are free to move. Ions and Electron Shells Atoms that have gained/lost electrons are ions. Group 1 and Group 7 elements are most likely to react and form ions. Same with Group 2 and Group 6 elements. Group 1 and 2 are metal elements and lose electrons to form positive ions (cations), whereas Group 7 and 6 are non-metal elements which gain electrons to form negative ions (anions)

Covalent Bonding Covalent Bonds These bonds occur between non-metal atoms. A covalent bond forms when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. Covalent bonds are VERY STRONG! Only electrons in the highest occupied energy level (outer shell) can be shared. The atoms in covalent bonds are held together by shared electrons. Most substances held together by covalent bond consist of molecules but a few have giant structures. Each atom involved has to make enough covalent bonds to fill up its highest occupied outer shell (8 electrons) Substances formed from covalent bonds can either be simple molecules (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide, water etc) or giant structures (macromolecules e.g. Diamond, silicon oxide) Atoms which share electrons often form molecules in which there are strong covalent bonds between the atoms in each molecule but not between molecules; weak intermolecular forces therefore covalent structures generally have low melting/boiling points. Calculate how many covalent bonds can be formed: 8 group number = # of covalent bonds. e.g. 8- 3 (Al) = 5 covalent bonds.


Giant Covalent Structures Buckminster Fullerene 3 strong covalent bonds. Unpaired electrons form intermolecular bonds. Carbon atoms join together to make large cages. Nanoparticle! The smallest fullerene, has 60 carbon atoms joined in a ball. Graphite Carbon atoms arranged in giant layers. Each carbon atom forms three covalent bonds in layered structure. Fourth electrons form intermolecular bonds between layers. Sometimes used to reduce friction between two surfaces as it is very slippery as a result of the layers of carbon atoms sliding over each other. Carbon is in group 4 so it can form four covalent bonds (8-4 =4) and in graphite only three covalent Bonds are made so one electron from each carbon atom becomes delocalised which allows graphite to Conduct heat and electricity.

Diamond Each carbon atom covalently bonds to four other carbon atoms. Its a regular lattice of carbon atoms with strong covalent bonds; diamond is very hard.

Giant covalent structures contain many atoms joined by covalent bonds. They have high melting and boiling points. Diamond is a very hard macromolecule because each carbon atom is covalently joined to four other ones. However, graphite is soft because there are layers of atoms which can slide over each other.

Simple Molecular Substances The atoms form very strong covalent bonds to form small molecules of several atoms. The intermolecular forces are very weak. As a result of these feeble forces of attraction between the molecules, the melting and boiling points are very low as the molecules are easily parted from each other. Most molecular substances are gases or liquids at room temperature. Molecular substances do not conduct electricity, THERE ARE NO IONS. A molecular substances physical state will be mushy i.e. Liquid or gas or an easily-melted solid. Chlorine, Oxygen, Water and Ethanol are all simple molecular substances.

Metallic Structures What is a metal? A lattice of positive metal ions held together by a sea of delocalised electrons. Metals consist of a giant structure. Metal properties are all due to the sea of delocalised electrons; they come from the outer shell of every metal atom in the structure. Metals can be bent and shaped without breaking they are malleable because they have layers of metal atoms that can slide over each other. In a metal, the atoms exist as positive ions because the electrons on the outer shell have become delocalised. There are strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the positively charged metal ions and negatively charged delocalised electrons : METAL BONDS Metallic Conduction Metals conduct heat because of their delocalised electrons; they gain kinetic energy when the metal is heated. The energy is transferred throughout the metal as the delocalised electrons move. Metals conduct electricity because of their delocalised electrons; they are free to move and carry charge through the metal.

Identifying Bonding by its Properties Melting and boiling points low and not a good electrical conductor = Simple Molecular Substance High melting and boiling points and a good electrical conductor = Metallic Bonding High melting and boiling points and not a good electrical conductor = Giant Covalent Reasonably high melting and boiling points and a good electrical conductor when in solution/molten = Ionic Bonding.

1nm = 1 millionth of a millimetre. Nanoparticles are between 1nm and 100nm and each contain just a few hundred atoms. They have a high surface area to volume ratio. Nanoparticles have different properties from the same substance in larger pieces. Useful properties of Nanoparticles They have huge surface areas and thus can help make industrial catalysts You can surfaces, using Nanoparticles, with very specific properties. They can be used to make sensors to detect one type of molecules and nothing else, theyre that sensitive and specific. Theyre currently being used to test water purity levels.