Anda di halaman 1dari 42

# ALIRAN AIR TANAH

## 1. Aliran laminer; aliran yang partikel-partikel airnya bergerak

sejajar dengan kecepatan relatif lambat.
2. Aliran turbulent, aliran yang yang partikel-partikel airnya bergerak
secara berputar (bergolak), biasanya mempunyai kecepatan
yang besar.

Aliran laminer:

## 1. Aliran tetap ( Steady Flow ), aliran tidak berubah karena waktu

2. Aliran tidak tetap ( unsteady flow), aliran yg berubah karena waktu.

## Kecepatan aliran airtanah tergantung pada Gravitasi (landaian hidrolik)

dan friksi (gesekan).

## Grafitasi akan memdorong airtanah bergerak dari tempat yang tinggi ke

Tempat yang rendah. Besarnya dinyatakan sebagai Landaian Hidrolik.
Landaian Hidrolik;

i = dh / dl

## Friksi (gesekan ) sebagai penghambat lajunya aliran airtanah.

- Gesekan Dalam tergantung pada kekentalan air, suhu air,
semakin kental semakin lambat alirannya.
yang berbutir halus akan mempunyai permukaan luas sehingga
maka gesekan luar semakin besar akibatnya aliran menjadi lambat.

## Dengan demikian aliran airtanah tergantung pada landaian hidrolik dan

Kesarangan efektif atau kelulusan air.

Liran airtanah dalam akuifer (media berpori) akan mengikuti hukum Darcy

hp h

P
h= z+
ρg
P = ρgh p
h = z + hp
P( A)
h( A) = + z ( A) (1)
γw

## z(A) z diukur vertikal ke atas

Datum
Example: Static water table
1. Calculation of head at A

## Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer

P (A) = 4γ w
2m
1m X z (A) = 1
5 m thus
A 4γ w
1m
h( A) = + 1 = 5m
Impermeable stratum γw
Example: Static water table
2. Calculation of head at X

## Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer

P ( X) = γw
2m
1m X z ( X) = 4
5 m thus
A γw
1m h ( X) = + 4 = 5m
Impermeable stratum γw

The heads at A and X are identical does this imply that the head
is constant throughout the region below a static water table?
Example: Static water table
3. Calculation of head at A

## Choose datum at the water table

2m P (A) = 4γ w
1m X z( A) = -4
5m thus
A
1m 4γ w
Impermeable stratum h (A) = - 4 = 0m
γw
Example: Static water table
4. Calculation of head at X

## Choose datum at the water table

2m P (X) = 1γ w
1m X z ( X) = −1
5m thus
A
1m γw
Impermeable stratum
h ( X) = − 1 = 0m
γw

## Again, the head at P and X is identical, but the value is different

• The value of the head depends on the choice of datum
• Differences in head are required for flow (not pressure)

## 2m It can be helpful to consider

imaginary standpipes
1m X
placed in the soil at the
5m points where the head is
A
1m required
Impermeable stratum

## The head is the elevation of the water level in the

standpipe above the datum
Head in water of variable density

P1 = ρ p gh p

hf P2 = ρ f gh f
hp

 ρp 
hf =  hp
ρ 
P1
z
P2
 f 
Water flow through soil

∆h

Soil Sample

Darcy found that the flow (volume per unit time) was

##  inversely proportional to the length of sample ∆L

Darcy’s Experiment
 The first systematic study of the movement water through a porous
ha hb

L Q

##  The discharge (Q) is proportional to the difference in the height of the

water (hydraulic head , h) between the end and inversely proportional
to the flow length (L).

##  The flow is obviously proportional to the cross sectional area of the

pipe. When combined with the proportional constant, K, the result is
the expression known as Darcy’s law

 hA − hB  dh
Q = − KA  = − KA
 L  dl
Hydraulic conductivity
 Hydraulic conductivity may be referred to as the
coefficient of permeability;
−Q − ( L3 / T )
K= K= 2
A( dh / dL ) ( )
L ( L / L)

γ   ρg 
K = k   = k  
µ  µ 
 γ = specific weight, µ = dynamic viscosity.
Measurement of permeability
inlet
device

H
Manometers
outlet

measurement
porous disk

## Fig. 4 Constant Head Permeameter

The volume discharge X during a suitable time interval
T is collected.
The difference in head H over a length L is measured by
means of manometers.
Knowing the cross-sectional area A, Darcy’s law gives
V H
= kA
T L

## It can be seen that in a constant head permeameter::

VL
k =
AHT (3)
Measurement of permeability
Standpipe of
cross-sectional
area a

porous disk
H1
H
Sample H2
L of area A

## Fig. 5 Falling Head Permeameter

Solution Standpipe
of area
dH H
−a = kA (4a) a
dt L

## Equation (4a) has the solution:

H1
kA H
− an( H ) = t + cons tan t (4b)
L H2
Sample
L of area
Initially H=H1 at time t=t1 A
Finally H=H2 at time t=t2.

aL n( H1 / H 2 )
k= (4c)
A t 2 − t1
Typical permeability values

10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12

## Gravels Sands Silts Homogeneous Clays

Fissured & Weathered Clays

## Soils exhibit a wide range of permeabilities and while particle

size may vary by about 3-4 orders of magnitude permeability
may vary by about 10 orders of magnitude.

## For horizontal flow v=vx

z
and k=kH and thus

A v x = − k H ix
∆z dimana
B C h(C ) − h( B )
∆x ix ≈
O x ∆x
∂h
vx = −k H
∂x

## For vertical flow v=vz

z
and k=kV and thus

A v z = −k z iz
∆z dimana
B C h( A) − h( B )
∆x iz ≈
O x ∆z
∂h
v z = −kv
∂z

92
90

81
80

70

63
Aquifer characteristics
 Transmissivity(T) is a measure of the amount of water that can be transmitted
horizontally through a unit width of the full saturated thickness of the aquifer under a
 T = Kb.
K= hydraulic conductivity,
b = saturated thickness of the aquifer

 Storativity (S) or coefficient of storage; is the volume of water that a permeable unit
will absorb or expel from storage per unit surface are per unit change in head.

 Specific storage (Ss) is the amount of water per unit volume of a saturated formation
that is stored or expelled from storage owing the compressibility of the mineral
skeleton and the pore water per unit change in head. Jacob expression ;

S s = ρ w g ( α + nβ )
ρw = the density of the water (ML-3),
g = the acceleration of gravity (LT-2),
α = the compressibility of the aquifer skeleton (1/(M/LT2)),
β = the compressibility of the water (1/(M/LT2)),
n = the porosity (L3/L3)
z

aquifer Flow
x

Impermeable bedrock
Flow into a soil element
vz

vx D Soil B ∆z
Element
A
∆x

Netflow = (v x ( B)
− v x ( D))∆y∆z + (v z (C ) − v z ( A))∆x∆y

## Untuk aliran tunak, netflow menjadi nol;

∂v x ∂v z
+ =0
∂x ∂z
Continuity Equation
∂v x ∂v z
Continuity Equation + = 0
∂x ∂z

+ Darcy's Law
+
∂h
vx = −k H
∂x
Darcy’s Law ∂h
vz = −k V
∂z

∂ ∂h ∂ ∂h
Flow equation (k H ) + (k V ) = 0
∂x ∂x ∂z ∂z
∂ ∂h ∂ ∂h
Flow equation (k H ) + (k V ) = 0
∂x ∂x ∂z ∂z

2 2
∂ h ∂ h
For a homogeneous soil kH 2 + kV 2 = 0
∂x ∂z

2 2
∂ h ∂ h
For an isotropic soil
2
+ 2 =0
∂x ∂z
Equations of Groundwater flow
 Confined aquifer ; ∂ 2 h ∂ 2 h S ∂h
+ 2 =
∂x ∂y
2
T ∂t

 Unconfined aquifer;

∂ 2 h ∂ 2 h S y ∂h
+ 2 =
∂x ∂y
2
Kb ∂t
Flow net
 The method of flow-net construction presented here
is based on the following assumptions;
 The aquifer is homogeneous
 The aquifer is fully saturated
 The aquifer is isotropic
 There is no change in the potential field with time
 The soil and water are incompressible
 Flow is laminar, and Darcy’s law is valid
 All boundary conditions are known
Flow net (continued)
 Steps in making a flow net
 Sketch the flow system and identify prefixed flow lines and
equipotential lines.
 Identify prefixed end positions of flow lines and equipotential lines.
 Draw trial set of flow lines
 Draw trial set of equipotential lines orthogonal to flow lines.

## Water flowing by using the completed flow net can be quantified by

using formula;
Kph
q' =
f
q’ = the total volume discharge per unit width of aquifer.
K = the hydraulic conductivity
p = the number of flow paths bounded by adjacent pairs of streamlines
h = the total head loss over the length of the streamlines
f = the number of squares bounded by any two adjacent streamlines and covering the
entire length of flow
Steady flow in a confined aquifer
 The quantity of flow per unit width, q’, may be determined
from Darcy’s law;

dh
q ' = Kb
dl
 K is hydraulic conductivity
 b is aquifer thickness
 dh/dl is slope of potentiometric surface
aquifer
 Employ Dupuit assumptions;
 The hydraulic gradient is equal to the slope of the water table
 For small water table gradient, the streamlines are horizontal
and the equipotential lines are vertical.

Dupuit equation;

1  h1 − h2 
2 2
q ' = K  
2  L 
Example problems
 A sand aquifer has a median grain diameter of 0.050 cm. For pure water at
150C, what is the greatest velocity for which Darcy’s law is valid.
 ρ = 0.999 x 103 kg/cm3
 µ = 1.14 x 10-2 g/s.cm

##  If hydraulic conductivity is 23 ft/day, what is the discharge per unit width of

the flow system in figure below.
Sifat-sifat fluida
The density of a fluid ; (Nm-3)
ρ = m /V

γ = ρg

 bulk modulus.