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ALIRAN AIR TANAH

MACAM ALIRAN AIRTANAH.

1. Aliran laminer; aliran yang partikel-partikel airnya bergerak


sejajar dengan kecepatan relatif lambat.
2. Aliran turbulent, aliran yang yang partikel-partikel airnya bergerak
secara berputar (bergolak), biasanya mempunyai kecepatan
yang besar.

Aliran laminer:

1. Aliran tetap ( Steady Flow ), aliran tidak berubah karena waktu


2. Aliran tidak tetap ( unsteady flow), aliran yg berubah karena waktu.

Kecepatan aliran airtanah tergantung pada Gravitasi (landaian hidrolik)


dan friksi (gesekan).

Grafitasi akan memdorong airtanah bergerak dari tempat yang tinggi ke


Tempat yang rendah. Besarnya dinyatakan sebagai Landaian Hidrolik.
Landaian Hidrolik;

i = dh / dl

Friksi (gesekan ) sebagai penghambat lajunya aliran airtanah.


- Gesekan Dalam tergantung pada kekentalan air, suhu air,
semakin kental semakin lambat alirannya.
- Gesekan luar tergantung pada partikel-partikelnya. Pada batuan
yang berbutir halus akan mempunyai permukaan luas sehingga
banyak air yang menempel atau melekat pada bitran(adhesi),
maka gesekan luar semakin besar akibatnya aliran menjadi lambat.

Dengan demikian aliran airtanah tergantung pada landaian hidrolik dan


Kesarangan efektif atau kelulusan air.

Liran airtanah dalam akuifer (media berpori) akan mengikuti hukum Darcy
Hydraulic head

hp h
h = hydraulic head
z = elevation head
hp= pressure head

P
h= z+
ρg
P = ρgh p
h = z + hp
Definisi hydraulic head pada sebuah titik
P( A)
h( A) = + z ( A) (1)
γw

z(A) z diukur vertikal ke atas


Terhadap bidang datum

Datum
Example: Static water table
1. Calculation of head at A

Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer

P (A) = 4γ w
2m
1m X z (A) = 1
5 m thus
A 4γ w
1m
h( A) = + 1 = 5m
Impermeable stratum γw
Example: Static water table
2. Calculation of head at X

Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer

P ( X) = γw
2m
1m X z ( X) = 4
5 m thus
A γw
1m h ( X) = + 4 = 5m
Impermeable stratum γw

The heads at A and X are identical does this imply that the head
is constant throughout the region below a static water table?
Example: Static water table
3. Calculation of head at A

Choose datum at the water table

2m P (A) = 4γ w
1m X z( A) = -4
5m thus
A
1m 4γ w
Impermeable stratum h (A) = - 4 = 0m
γw
Example: Static water table
4. Calculation of head at X

Choose datum at the water table

2m P (X) = 1γ w
1m X z ( X) = −1
5m thus
A
1m γw
Impermeable stratum
h ( X) = − 1 = 0m
γw

Again, the head at P and X is identical, but the value is different


Head
• The value of the head depends on the choice of datum
• Differences in head are required for flow (not pressure)

2m It can be helpful to consider


imaginary standpipes
1m X
placed in the soil at the
5m points where the head is
A
1m required
Impermeable stratum

The head is the elevation of the water level in the


standpipe above the datum
Head in water of variable density
Point-water head Fresh-water head

P1 = ρ p gh p

hf P2 = ρ f gh f
hp

 ρp 
hf =  hp
ρ 
P1
z
P2
 f 
Water flow through soil

∆h

Soil Sample

Darcy found that the flow (volume per unit time) was

 proportional to the head difference ∆h

 proportional to the cross-sectional area A

 inversely proportional to the length of sample ∆L


Darcy’s Experiment
 The first systematic study of the movement water through a porous
medium is made Henry Darcy.
ha hb

L Q

 The discharge (Q) is proportional to the difference in the height of the


water (hydraulic head , h) between the end and inversely proportional
to the flow length (L).

 The flow is obviously proportional to the cross sectional area of the


pipe. When combined with the proportional constant, K, the result is
the expression known as Darcy’s law

 hA − hB  dh
Q = − KA  = − KA
 L  dl
Hydraulic conductivity
 Hydraulic conductivity may be referred to as the
coefficient of permeability;
−Q − ( L3 / T )
K= K= 2
A( dh / dL ) ( )
L ( L / L)

γ   ρg 
K = k   = k  
µ  µ 
 γ = specific weight, µ = dynamic viscosity.
Measurement of permeability
inlet
constant head
device
load

H
Manometers
outlet

device for flow sample L


measurement
porous disk

Fig. 4 Constant Head Permeameter


Constant head permeameter
The volume discharge X during a suitable time interval
T is collected.
The difference in head H over a length L is measured by
means of manometers.
Knowing the cross-sectional area A, Darcy’s law gives
V H
= kA
T L

It can be seen that in a constant head permeameter::

VL
k =
AHT (3)
Measurement of permeability
Standpipe of
cross-sectional
area a

porous disk
H1
H
Sample H2
L of area A

Fig. 5 Falling Head Permeameter


Falling head permeameter
Solution Standpipe
of area
dH H
−a = kA (4a) a
dt L

Equation (4a) has the solution:


H1
kA H
− an( H ) = t + cons tan t (4b)
L H2
Sample
L of area
Initially H=H1 at time t=t1 A
Finally H=H2 at time t=t2.

aL n( H1 / H 2 )
k= (4c)
A t 2 − t1
Typical permeability values

10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12

Gravels Sands Silts Homogeneous Clays


Fissured & Weathered Clays

Typical Permeability Ranges (metres/second)

Soils exhibit a wide range of permeabilities and while particle


size may vary by about 3-4 orders of magnitude permeability
may vary by about 10 orders of magnitude.
Definition of Hydraulic Gradients

For horizontal flow v=vx


z
and k=kH and thus

A v x = − k H ix
∆z dimana
B C h(C ) − h( B )
∆x ix ≈
O x ∆x
jadi
∂h
vx = −k H
∂x
Definition of Hydraulic Gradients

For vertical flow v=vz


z
and k=kV and thus

A v z = −k z iz
∆z dimana
B C h( A) − h( B )
∆x iz ≈
O x ∆z
jadi
∂h
v z = −kv
∂z
Gradient of the potentiometric surface

92
90

81
80

70

63
Aquifer characteristics
 Transmissivity(T) is a measure of the amount of water that can be transmitted
horizontally through a unit width of the full saturated thickness of the aquifer under a
hydraulic gradient of 1.
 T = Kb.
K= hydraulic conductivity,
b = saturated thickness of the aquifer

 Storativity (S) or coefficient of storage; is the volume of water that a permeable unit
will absorb or expel from storage per unit surface are per unit change in head.

 Specific storage (Ss) is the amount of water per unit volume of a saturated formation
that is stored or expelled from storage owing the compressibility of the mineral
skeleton and the pore water per unit change in head. Jacob expression ;

S s = ρ w g ( α + nβ )
ρw = the density of the water (ML-3),
g = the acceleration of gravity (LT-2),
α = the compressibility of the aquifer skeleton (1/(M/LT2)),
β = the compressibility of the water (1/(M/LT2)),
n = the porosity (L3/L3)
z

aquifer Flow
x

Impermeable bedrock
Flow into a soil element
vz

vx D Soil B ∆z
Element
A
∆x

Netflow = (v x ( B)  
− v x ( D))∆y∆z + (v z (C ) − v z ( A))∆x∆y

Untuk aliran tunak, netflow menjadi nol;

∂v x ∂v z
+ =0
∂x ∂z
Continuity Equation
∂v x ∂v z
Continuity Equation + = 0
∂x ∂z

+ Darcy's Law
+
∂h
vx = −k H
∂x
Darcy’s Law ∂h
vz = −k V
∂z

∂ ∂h ∂ ∂h
Flow equation (k H ) + (k V ) = 0
∂x ∂x ∂z ∂z
∂ ∂h ∂ ∂h
Flow equation (k H ) + (k V ) = 0
∂x ∂x ∂z ∂z

2 2
∂ h ∂ h
For a homogeneous soil kH 2 + kV 2 = 0
∂x ∂z

2 2
∂ h ∂ h
For an isotropic soil
2
+ 2 =0
∂x ∂z
Equations of Groundwater flow
 Confined aquifer ; ∂ 2 h ∂ 2 h S ∂h
+ 2 =
∂x ∂y
2
T ∂t

 Unconfined aquifer;

∂ 2 h ∂ 2 h S y ∂h
+ 2 =
∂x ∂y
2
Kb ∂t
Flow net
 The method of flow-net construction presented here
is based on the following assumptions;
 The aquifer is homogeneous
 The aquifer is fully saturated
 The aquifer is isotropic
 There is no change in the potential field with time
 The soil and water are incompressible
 Flow is laminar, and Darcy’s law is valid
 All boundary conditions are known
Flow net (continued)
 Steps in making a flow net
 Sketch the flow system and identify prefixed flow lines and
equipotential lines.
 Identify prefixed end positions of flow lines and equipotential lines.
 Draw trial set of flow lines
 Draw trial set of equipotential lines orthogonal to flow lines.

Water flowing by using the completed flow net can be quantified by


using formula;
Kph
q' =
f
q’ = the total volume discharge per unit width of aquifer.
K = the hydraulic conductivity
p = the number of flow paths bounded by adjacent pairs of streamlines
h = the total head loss over the length of the streamlines
f = the number of squares bounded by any two adjacent streamlines and covering the
entire length of flow
Steady flow in a confined aquifer
 The quantity of flow per unit width, q’, may be determined
from Darcy’s law;

dh
q ' = Kb
dl
 K is hydraulic conductivity
 b is aquifer thickness
 dh/dl is slope of potentiometric surface
Steady flow in an unconfined
aquifer
 Employ Dupuit assumptions;
 The hydraulic gradient is equal to the slope of the water table
 For small water table gradient, the streamlines are horizontal
and the equipotential lines are vertical.

Dupuit equation;

1  h1 − h2 
2 2
q ' = K  
2  L 
Example problems
 A sand aquifer has a median grain diameter of 0.050 cm. For pure water at
150C, what is the greatest velocity for which Darcy’s law is valid.
 ρ = 0.999 x 103 kg/cm3
 µ = 1.14 x 10-2 g/s.cm

 If hydraulic conductivity is 23 ft/day, what is the discharge per unit width of


the flow system in figure below.
Sifat-sifat fluida
The density of a fluid ; (Nm-3)
ρ = m /V

The specific weight(Nm-3)


γ = ρg

 dynamic viscosity (µ) Ns/m2.

 bulk modulus.