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Induction Machine

Induction Machine
(N. Tesla 1888)
➤ Principle of operation
➤ Construction
➤ Characteristics:
➤ slip
➤ rotor current
➤ power
➤ torque

➤ Classification
➤ Control
Principle of operation
o

squirrel-cage rotor

o
o
Three-Phase Supply Voltage

A B C
N

60 120 S
A

120

C B
Resultant Stator Flux
Rotating Magnetic Flux

A A

B C B C
0 60
It’s electromagnetic
induction !!!
Induction Motor

➤ electromagnetic induction
➤ rotating magnetic flux induces an alternating
➤ current in the rotor

➤ motor action
➤ interaction of the induced rotor-current with
➤ the rotating field produces motor torque
Direction of Rotation

i
N

The rotor follows the rotating magnetic flux !


How to change the direction of
rotation?
➤ change the direction of rotation of the
rotating magnetic flux
➤ change the phase sequence of the applied
voltage
Synchronous Speed

➤ speed of the rotating magnetic flux

➤ ns = fs / (P/2)
Slip Speed n, Slip s

➤ n = ns - nr
➤s = ( ns - nr ) / ns

➤ if nr then n and s

➤ for nr = ns s=0
fr : frequency of the induced
voltage in the rotor

➤ fr = P n / 120

n = ns -nr
Rotor Current

1 -------- slip ---.2 - 0


0 ------ speed ---- 100%
Rotor Current Phasor

} Ir cos (theta): horizontal component

s = .05

s = .2

SGAP = EBRIr (cos 0 + j sin 0)


s=1
Interpreting the Circle Diagram

s = .05

Assume s = .05; If Tload

s = .2 nr s Ir Ir cos0

sufficient to carry the load

s=1
Power-Flow Diagram

Pgap

Pmech
Pin Pshaft

Pscl Pcore Prcl Pf,w Pstray


Mechanical Power vs Torque

Pmech = TD nr / 5252 (hp)

shaft speed r/min

developed torque lb-ft

mechanical power developed in rotor hp


Torque vs Speed
TD Torque

o breakdown

o o rated value
locked rotor

1 slip 0
Torque-Speed Characteristics
2
T D . Rr E BR
2112
T D
= 2
s nr [( Rr / s ) +
2
C X BR
]

A-B

Speed
Can slip at maximum torque be
changed?

Elevator
Tmax

Speed
R
s
T max
≈ 2
2

R +(X
1 1
+ X2 ) 2
Induction Generator

Induction
Motor Turbine

Increasing rotor speed above ns will reverse direction of PGAP


==> power is transferred in reverse direction, from rotor to stator
Induction Motor Starting

➤ Autotransformer Starting

➤ Y-Delta Starting

➤ Series Impedance

➤ Solid State Starting


Breaking (rotating rotor induces
currents to be dissipated in stator circuit)

➤ DC Injection
➤ Capacitor Breaking
Single-Phase Induction Motor

➤ There is no rotating magnetic flux


➤ How to produce needed rotating flux?
➤ Quadrature Field
Quadrature-Axis Flux (flux
induced by rotor current)
Stator or direct-axis flux

Quadrature-axis or
rotor flux
Phase Splitting

Single
phase

Phase
Splitter
Split-Phase Motors

➤ Resistance-Start Split-Phase Motors


➤ Capacitor-Start Split-Phase Motors