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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

Coordinate vs Geometric Tolerancing Methods


8.5 +/- 0.1 Rectangular Tolerance Zone 10.25 +/- 0.5 B 10.25 A 8.5 +/- 0.1 1.4 A B C Circular Tolerance Zone 10.25

10.25 +/- 0.5

Coordinate Dimensioning
+/- 0.5

Geometric Dimensioning
1.4

+/- 0.5 Rectangular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone


Circular Tolerance Zone

57% Larger Tolerance Zone

Rectangular Tolerance Zone

Increased Effective Tolerance

PURPOSE OF GD&T

TO AVOID SCRAPPING PERFECTLY GOOD PARTS. THE PARTS SHOULD PROPERLY FIT AND FUNCTION EVERY TIME. THE LARGEST AMOUNT OF TOLERANCE SHOULD BE AVAILABLE TO THE MANUFACTURER FOR PRODUCING THE PART AT MINIMUM COST, YET THE PART SHOULD BE FUNCTIONALLY ACCEPTABLE.

GD & T COMMON SYMBOLS

GD & T COMMON SYMBOLS

COMPONENTS OF FEATURE CONTROL FRAME

Terms in GD&T

Basic dimension:
A basic dimension is a numerical value used to describe the theoretically exact size, profile, orientation, or location of a feature or datum target. Basic dimensions are used to define or position tolerance zones. Title block tolerances do not apply to basic dimensions. The tolerance associated with a basic dimension usually appears in a feature control frame or a note.

Datum:
A datum is a theoretically exact point, line, or plane derived from the true geometric
counterpart of a specified datum feature. A datum is the origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established.

Datum feature:
A datum feature is an actual feature on a part used to establish a datum.

Feature:
A feature is a physical portion of a part, such as a flat surface, pin, hole, tab, or slot.

Feature of size (also Size Feature and Feature Subject to Size Variations):
Features of size are features that have a size dimension. A feature of size takes four

forms:
Cylindrical surfaces Two opposed parallel surfaces A spherical surface

Two opposed elements


Cylindrical surfaces and two opposed parallel surfaces are the most common features of size.

True position:
True position is the theoretically exact location of a feature established by basic dimensions. Tolerance zones are located at true position.

Material Conditions

Regardless of feature size Maximum material condition Least material condition

Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

The maximum material condition of a feature of size is the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size, for example, the maximum shaft diameter or the minimum hole diameter

Least material condition (LMC):

The least material condition of a feature of size is the least amount of material within the stated limits of size. For example, the minimum shaft diameter or the maximum hole diameter.

Regardless of feature size (RFS):

Regardless of feature size is a material condition modifier used in a feature control frame to indicate that a geometric tolerance or datum reference applies at each increment of size of the feature within its limits of size. RFS specifies that no bonus tolerance is allowed.

3-2-1 Principle

A part always have Six degree of freedom (3 translational + 3 rotational)

As per 3-2-1 principle , primary datum should have 3 degree of freedom , secondary datum should have 2 degree of freedom and tertiary only 1.

RULES OF GD&T
There are four rules that apply to drawings in general, and to GD&T in particular.

Rule #1 states that where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of size of an individual feature of size prescribe the extent to which variations in its geometric form, as well as its size, are allowed. Rule #2 states that RFS automatically applies, in a feature control frame, to individual tolerances of size features and to datum features of size. MMC and LMC must be specified when these conditions are required. Rule #3 The pitch diameter rule

Each tolerance of orientation or position and datum reference specified for screw threads applies to the axis of the thread derived from the pitch diameter. Exceptions to this rule may be specified by placing a note, such as MAJOR DIA or MINOR DIA, beneath the feature control frame, or beneath or adjacent to, the datum feature symbol.

Rule #4 The virtual condition rule

Where a datum feature of size is controlled by a geometric tolerance and that datum is specified as a secondary or tertiary datum, the datum applies at virtual condition with respect to orientation.

Bonus Tolerance

Bonus equals the difference between the Actual Feature Size and MMC. Bonus plus Geometric Tolerance equals Total Positional Tolerance.

Virtual condition
The virtual condition of a feature specified at MMC is a constant boundary generated by the collective effects of the MMC limit of size of a feature and the specified geometric tolerance. Features specified with an LMC modifier also have a virtual condition.

Virtual condition calculations:


External Features (Pin) MMC Plus Geometric Tolerance @ MMC Internal Features (Hole)

MMC Minus Geometric Tolerance @ MMC

Tolerances of Form

Straightness
Flatness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.1) (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.2)

Circularity Cylindricity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.3) (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.4)

Straightness
0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance

0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line

0.5 Tolerance Zone

25.25 max

24.75 min

0.1 Tolerance Zone

In this example each line element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the applicable straightness limit. The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line

Flatness
0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance Zone 0.1 Tolerance Zone

24.75 min

25.25 max

In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the flatness limit.
Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane. Flatness must fall within the limits of size. The flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance.

Circularity (Roundness)
0.1

0.1

9 0 9 0

0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone

In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the circularity limit.

Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from that axis. The circularity tolerance must be less than the size tolerance

Cylindricity
0.1

0.1 Tolerance Zone

MMC
In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified tolerance value. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the cylindricity limit. Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points are equidistant from a common axis. Cylindricity is a composite control of form which includes circularity (roundness), straightness, and taper of a cylindrical feature.

Tolerances of Orientation

Angularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.2)

Perpendicularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.6.4)

Parallelism (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.6.4)

Angularity
(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

20 +/-0.5 0.3 A
30 o

A
19.5 min 20.5 max 30 o

30 o

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane. Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Perpendicularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface)


0.3 A

A
0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone
0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane.
Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Parallelism
0.3 A

(Feature Surface to Datum Surface)

25 +/-0.5

A
0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone

25.5 max

24.5 min

The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane.
Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane, within the specified tolerance zone.

Tolerances of Runout

Circular Runout (ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.7.1.2.2)

Total Runout
(ASME Y14.5M-1994 ,6.7.1.2.2)

Circular Runout
Runout refers to the result of placing a solid of revolution on a spindle such as a lathe,
and rotating the part about its central axis while measuring with a dial indicator its surface deviation from perfect roundness. With circular runout, the dial indicator is not moved along the direction of the axis of the part. Circular runout is therefore applied independently at each station along the length of the part as the part is rotated through 360 degrees.

Total Runout
Total runout involves moving the dial indicator along the length of the part while the part is rotated, so that it controls the cumulative variations of circularity, cylindricity, straightness, coaxiality, angularity, taper, and profile.

Tolerances of Location

True Position
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.2)

Concentricity
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.12)

Symmetry
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.13)

True Position
A theoretical tolerance zone located at true position of the toleranced feature within which the center point, axis, or center plane of the feature may vary from true position
(ASME Y14.5M-1994, 5.2)

True Position

Means This

Location (Concentricity)
Datum Features at RFS

0.5 A 6.35 +/- 0.05

15.95 15.90

As Shown on Drawing Axis of Datum Feature A 0.5 Coaxial Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points of Diametrically Opposed Elements Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.5 cylindrical tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.

Location (Symmetry)
Datum Features at RFS 6.35 +/- 0.05 0.5 A

15.95 15.90

As Shown on Drawing Center Plane of Datum Feature A 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally disposed about datum plane A, 0.5 apart. Symmetry can only be applied on an RFS basis.

Tolerances of Profile

Profile of a Line (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2b)

Profile of a Surface (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.5.2a)

Profile of a Line
The profile of a line tolerance is a two-dimensional or cross-sectional geometric tolerance that extends along the length of the feature.

Profile of a Surface
A profile of a surface tolerance is used where it is desired to control the entire surface as a single feature.

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