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INTRODUCTION ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

S.S.MOORTHY SEMENCHALAM M.Sc. Comm Health (Occ Health) UKM B.HSc. Nursing (Aust) Dip Med Sc. (Moh)

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of this session, student will be able to 1. Define the meaning of anatomy and physiology 2. State the different aspects of human body 3. List the levels of organization in the human body 4. State the body as a whole using standard terminology 5. Identify the organ system, location and the functions of each system 6. Appreciate the importance of understanding the anatomical terminology of body directions, surface and body planes
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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy the study of the structure of the body and the relationships of the various parts of the body Physiology the study of the functions of the parts of the body, including specific organ systems, molecular and cellular levels.

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Study of Human Body in different aspects


Macroscopic/Gross anatomy visible structure eg. body structure & function, defense mechanism or drug action. 2) Microscopic/Histology anatomy Not visible thru our naked eyes eg.cellular function 3) Embryology anatomy developmental: conception to birth. 4) Comparative Anatomy & Physiology human & animals.
1)
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Levels of Structural Organization

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Levels of Structural Organization


Chemical Cellular Tissue Organ System Organism atoms combine to form molecules molecules interact to make up cells cells are grouped into tissue tissues compose organs organs function together to form organ systems made up of the organ systems

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Levels of Structural Organization

Atoms
Chemical

Molecule Cell Tissue Organ


Cellular

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System
Organism
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Terminology
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Anatomical position Directional Regional Body planes Body cavity


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1. Anatomical Position

A person standing erect with the face forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and palms of the hands facing forward.

SUPINE lying face upward PRONE lying face downward

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2. Directional Terms
Superior (Cranial) above Towards the head, upper part of the body Inferior (Caudal) below Away from the head, lower part of the body

Anterior (Ventral) in front of Towards the front of the body

Posterior (Dorsal) behind Towards the back of the body

Medial Towards midline

Lateral Away from midline

Intermediate between a more medial and lateral structure


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Examples:
The head is superior to the abdomen The navel is inferior to the chin

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Examples:
The breastbone is anterior to the spine The buttock is posterior to the knee

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Examples:
The heart is medial to the arm

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Examples:
The arms are lateral to the chest

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Examples:
The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone & shoulder

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Directional Terms
Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb

Distal Farther from the origin of


the body part or the point of attachment of a limb

(External) Superficial Toward the body surface

(Internal) Deep Away from the body


surface

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Examples:
The elbow is proximal to the wrist

The knee is distal to the thigh


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Examples:
The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscle

The lungs are deep to the skin


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3. Regional Terms

Axial Region head, neck, and trunk Appendicular Region appendages or limbs

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Subdivision Abdominopelvic Quadrants

Right upper Left upper Right lower Left lower

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Abdominopelvic Regions

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4. Body Planes
Frontal/Coronal divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

Transverse or horizontal (cross section) divides the body into superior and inferior parts

Sagittal and Medial divides the body into right and left parts

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Frontal/Coronal Plane Transverse Plane

Body Planes

Sagittal Plane

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5. Body Cavities
1. Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions
Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the

brain Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord

2. Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions thoracic abdominopelvic
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Body Cavities

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Body Cavities ventral cavity

Thoracic cavity is subdivided into:


1.Pleural cavities contain lungs 2.Mediastinum contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs 3.Pericardial encloses the heart

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Cont. Body Cavities ventral cavity

The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm Abdominopelvic cavity is composed of two subdivisions: Abdominal cavity contains the stomach,

intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs Pelvic cavity lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

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Other Body Cavities


Oral and digestive mouth and cavities of the digestive organs Nasal located within and posterior to the nose Orbital house the eyes Middle ear contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations Synovial joint cavities

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Excersice
The knee is ________ to the hip bones. The ears are ________ to the nose. The shoulder is _______ to the elbow. The elbow is on the _______ side of the arm. (lateral/posterior / inferior/ superior)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

List the three planes of the body What structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

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Thank you
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QUESTIONS PLEASE..

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