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3-phase voltages are produced with a 3-phase ac generator( alternator) as shown in Fig Generator consists of a rotating magnet (rotor) surrounded by a stationary winding (stator) 3 coils with terminals a-a,b-b,c-c are placed 120 apart around stator As rotor rotates, its magnetic field cuts flux from 3 coils and induces voltages in coils. As coils are placed 120 apart, induced voltages in coils are equal in magnitude but out of phase by 120 As each coil can be regarded as a single-phase generator by itself, 3phase generator can supply power to single-phase and 3-phase loads A typical 3-phase system consists of 3 voltage sources connected to loads by 3 or 4 wires. A 3-phase system is equivalent to three singlephase circuits. Voltage sources can be either wye or delta connected as shown in Fig.

For wye NW V an , V bn, V cn are Voltages between lines a, b, and c, and neutral line n.These voltages are called phase voltages. If voltage sources have same amplitude and freq and are out of phase with each other by 120, voltages are said to be balanced and implies that V an +V bn+V cn =0 so balanced phase voltages are equal in magnitude & are out of phase with each other by 120. Mathematically

Where Vp is effective or rms value of phase voltages. This is known as abc sequence or + sequence in which V an leads V bn, which in turn leads V cn rotor in rotates counterclockwise. For delta NW, in acb or sequence V an leads V cn which in turn leads V bn and rotor rotates clockwise

Like generator connections, a 3-phase load can be either wye- or delta-connected depending on end application. Neutral line in Y may or may not be there but in delta it is impossible. A wye- or delta-connected load is said to be unbalanced if phase impedances are not equal in magnitude or phase. But A balanced load is one in which phase impedances are equal in magnitude and in phase. i.e. for Y load Z1 = Z2 = Z3 = ZY , for Delta Za = Zb = Zc = Zdelta Zdelta = 3ZY , ZY = 1/3 Zdelta and there are 4 possible connections: Y-Y connection (i.e., Y-connected source with a Y-connected load), YDelta, Delta-Delta, Delta-Y Balanced delta-load is more common than balanced wye- load. This is due to ease with which loads may be added/removed from each phase of delta- load. This is very difficult with a wye-load because neutral may not be accessible. Whereas Delta-sources are not common as circulating current will result in delta-mesh if 3 phase voltages are slightly unbalanced


Determine phase sequence of set of voltages

Van = 200 cos(wt+10) Vbn = 200 cos(wt-230) Vcn = 200 cos(wt-110) Solution: voltages can be expressed in phasor form as

We notice that Van leads Vcn by 120 which in turn leads Vbn by 120 so an acb sequence.


A balanced Y-Y system is a 3-phase system with a balanced Y- source and a balanced Y- load Consider balanced 4-wire Y-Y system of Fig where a Y- load is connected to a Y- source We assume a balanced load so that load impedances are equal. Although impedance Z Y is total load impedance per phase, it may also be regarded as sum of the source impedance Z s ,line impedance Zl and load impedance ZL for each phase as these impedances are in series. Zs denotes internal impedance of phase winding of generator. Z l is impedance of line joining a phase of source with a phase of load. ZL is impedance of each phase of load, Zn is impedance of neutral line ZY = Z s + Zl + Z L As Zs and Zl are very small compared with ZL so one can assume ZY=ZL (no source or line impedance) Assuming +sequence, phase voltages (or line-to neutral voltages) are line-to-line voltages or simply line voltages


Similarly, we can obtain So magnitude of line voltages where and Line voltages lead their corresponding phase voltages by 30 as in upper Fig. it show how to determine Vab from phase voltages and lower shows same for three line voltages. Applying KVL to each phase in Fig

Voltage across neutral wire is zero. Neutral line can be removed without affecting system. In Y-Y line current is same phase current In long distance power Xmsn, conductors in multiples of 3 are used with earth itself acting as neutral conductor

Calculate line currents in 3-wire Y-Y system of Fig. Solution: 3-phase circuit in Fig. is balanced; we may replace it with its single-phase equivalent circuit such as in Fig Ia from single-phase analysis as where


As Source voltages are in + sequence so line currents are also in +sequence


A balanced Y-D system consists of balanced source feeding a balanced D-load Assuming +sequence, phase voltages are
Line voltages are Showing that line voltages are equal to voltages across load impedances for this system configuration. Phase currents as These currents have same magnitude but are out of phase with each other by 120 Another way to get these phase currents is to apply KVL. Line currents are obtained from phase currents by applying KCL at As nodes A, B, and C



3-phase Y-D system can be replaced by singlephase equivalent circuit in Fig to calculate only line currents Example: A balanced abc-sequence Y- source with is connected to D-balanced load (8+4j) ohm. Calculate phase and line currents. Solution: load impedance is Phase currents are Line currents are


A balanced D-D system is one in which both source and balanced load are D-connected For + sequence, phase voltages for a D source are

Example: A balanced D- load having an impedance is 20- j15 ohm connected to a D +sequence generator having Calculate phase currents of load and line currents Solution: load impedance per phase is


A balanced D-Y system consists of a balanced D- source feeding a balanced Y-connected load

But I b lags I a by since we assumed abc sequence; that is, Putting Ia-Ib implies Another way to obtain line currents is to replace D source with its equivalent Y source, as shown in Fig



An unbalanced system is caused by two possible situations: (1) source voltages are not equal in magnitude and/or differ in phase by angles that are unequal (2) load impedances are unequal An unbalanced system is due to unbalanced voltage sources or an unbalanced load. An unbalanced 3-phase system that consists of balanced source voltages and an unbalanced Y- load. Since load is unbalanced. Z A Z B Z C are not equal. Line currents are determined by Ohms law as
This set of unbalanced line currents produces current in neutral line, which is not zero as in a balanced system. Applying KCL at node N gives neutral line current as In a 3-wire system where neutral line is absent, we can still find the line currents using mesh analysis

Unbalanced Y-load has balanced voltages of 100 V and acb sequence. Calculate line currents and neutral current. Solution: Line currents are

Current in neutral line is