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SINTEF Energy Research

Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

Seminar for NFR sitt Olje og gass program 3 - 4 april 2003

Mona J. Mlnvik SINTEF Energy Research

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

Outline of presentation LNG in general The project Conclusions

Spiral Wound LNG heat Exchanger

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Map of major gas trade movements (BP Amoco, 2002)

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LNG Natural gas at 162oC A base-load LNG plant usually comprises the following elements:
Inlet facilities CO2 removal Dehydration Natural gas liquefaction LNG storage LNG loading facilities Fractionation

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Base Load Plants Existing Baseload LNG plants

Licensor Process Technology C3/MR SMR Teal (dual pressure SMR) Classical cascade Prico (SMR) Cascade = = = = = =

Total number of trains 52 4 3 3 3 2 67

Total production [MTPA] 104.5 2.6 2.85 1.2 3.6 4.3 119.05

% of market production 87.8 2.2 2.4 1.0 3.0 3.6 100

Start up date 1972present 1970 1972 1964 1981 1969-1999 -

Largest train [MTPA] 3.3 0.65 0.95 0.4 1.2 3.0 -

APCI APCI TechnipLAir Liquid TechnipLAir Liquid Pritchard Phillips Total


Air Products and Chemicals Inc Propane precooled/ mixed refrigerant Combined Propane, Ethylene, Methane refrigeration system Dual mixed refrigerant Single mixed refrigerant Million tonnes per annum

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Base Load Plants Current LNG projects

LNG Plant / Current Project Nigeria Expansion train 3 Atlantic LNG Expansion train 2 and 3, Trinidad MLNG Tiga Expansion train 7 and 8, Malaysia Northwest Shelf Expansion, train 4 Australia RASGAS Expansion, train 3 and 4, Qatar Egypt SEGAS LNG Nigeria Plus, train 4 and 5 Snhvit, Hammerfest, Norway Selected Technology APCI C3/MR Phillips Cascade APCI C3/MR Largest train [MTPA] 3.0 3.3 3.6 Planned start-up 2002 2003 2003





4.7 5.0 3.1 4.3

2004-5 2004 2005 2006

MFCP = Mixed Fluid Cascade Process

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The coil-wound heat exchanger

Produces by: Air Products and Chemicals Inc. in USA Linde in Germany The heat exchangers are made in aluminum. Dimensions of a the main LNG coil-wound heat exchanger is as follows:
Height Diameter Core tube diameter Tube length Tube diameter 10-50 m 3-5 m 1m 70-100 m 10-15 mm

The Statoil/Linde MFCP is a more flexible mixed fluid process with two main coil-wound heat exchangers.

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The Statoil - Linde Proprietary - Liquefaction Technology

MFCP - The Mixed Fluid Cascade Process

Novel LNG liquefaction technology Concept based on well known elements

Linde fabrication of heat exchangers

Plate fin heat exchangers in the precooling Spiral wound heat exchangers in the liquefaction and subcooling

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Prosess Barge Hammerfest, Melkya

2006 4,3 MTPA CO2 reinection

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Breakdown of Liquefaction Plant Capital Costs

6% 10 % Gas liquefaction LNG storage 16 % 50 % Utilities Loading facilities Pre-treatment 18 %

(Finn et al. 1999)

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

Project: 156662/210
Objective: to develop the next generation heat exchanging technology for LNG plants, which compared to heat exchangers used today is: more compact having higher efficiency reduced costs Applicants: SINTEF Energy Research, Norsk Hydro and Statoil (project responsible/manager) Total budget: 14 MNOK (2003-2006), 50% from NFR

The project shall lead to a strong international LNG technology position for the project partners by combining: Norsk Hydros experience in aluminium multiport extruded tubes and components SINTEFs experience in gas liquefaction and development of compact automotive refrigeration heat exchangers Statoils experience in heat exchanger development and Spiral Wound LNG heat Exchanger the development of the Hammerfest LNG plant

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

Necessity for new technology
The propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant process is the most common refrigerant cycle for base-load natural gas liquefaction plants. Both for future projects and for improvements and replacements on existing plants this configuration will be central. Heat exchange equipment is applied in several parts of a LNG plant. Especially in the liquefaction section, large and expensive equipment is needed. For the liquefaction section the following heat-exchange equipment is of special interest and importance:
Condensation of natural gas in the multistream main cryogenic heat

exchanger, in heat exchange with evaporating mixed refrigerant Seawater or air cooling of refrigerant in pre-cooling section and mixed refrigerant in the compressor train Cooling of mixed refrigerant and natural gas by evaporating precooling refrigerant
Spiral Wound LNG heat Exchanger

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

The first part of the project will be used to identify which heat exchangers in the LNG process that has the largest potential for improvements regarding size and cost reduction. Material selection - aluminum will put restrictions on possible design due to manufacturing costs and challenges related to corrosion. Performance of enhanced heat exchanger surfaces, heat transfer and pressure drop. Important test data are missing within the field of applications that will be addressed here. Distribution of the two-phase flow in the heat exchanger cores and header systems, an area with major challenges, especially for compact heat exchangers, which is the focus for this project.
Spiral Wound LNG heat Exchanger

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

R&D-challenges ...
Heat exchanger manufacturing is a challenge since new concepts are to be developed. In this project laboratory heat exchangers will be manufactured and tested based on the experience Hydro inherits from other application areas. Also, two PhD studies are planned; one will be focusing on experimental measurements and new heat exchanger design development. The second PhD will be focused on heat exchanger modeling software development. The project is expected to give results that may contribute to a technological shift within the area of heat exchanger technology for LNG applications.
Spiral Wound LNG heat Exchanger

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers

Experimental work
Skewed distribution in two-phase flows Heat transfer and pressure drop in advanced compact heat

exchangers with enhanced surfaces for improved performance. SINTEF Energy Research and NTNU have large and advanced laboratory facilities and relevant experimental rigs and equipment.

Modeling, simulation and software development

Based on heat-transfer and pressure drop measurements on

advanced heat-exchangers, correlations for use in design and simulation tools will be developed.

Development of a design tool for compact heat exchangers for LNG heat exchangers
Based on the experimental and modeling activities. An important feature is the wide geometric flexibility in definition

and simulation of new designs, both regarding tube configuration and tube and fin geometry.
Spiral Wound LNG heat Exchanger

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Compact LNG Heat Exchangers


MPE VV DH = 0.8 mm Coil VV DH = 10 15 mm Snhvit 1 Snhvit 2?