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Fisiologi: Homeostasis Hormon

Titis Nurmasitoh Departemen Fisiologi FK UII

Pokok Bahasan
Respons

tubuh terhadap stress

Pertumbuhan, perkembangan, dan efek penuaan terhadap kelenjar endokrin Peran sistem endokrin pada homeostasis setiap sistem Ketidakseimbangan endokrin terhadap homeostasis

Homeostasis
The body ability to maintain internal stability (homeo similar; stasis condition

Internal Failure

Abnormal growth of cells


Cancer, benign tumours Production of antibodies by the body

against its own tissues (autoimmune disease)


Premature death of cells or the failure of

cell processes

Inherited disorders

External Causes

Toxic chemicals Physical trauma Foreign invaders (viruses & bacteria)

TRIAS HEALTHY LIFESTYLE


PHYSICALLY

ACTIVE

BALANCE NUTRITION MANAGEABLE MENTAL CONDITION Whats the now situation ?


Stressful living Imbalance nutrition Less physical activity

(less fiber, more fat, shifted-food culture)

The stress respons

Nowadays situation: stressful living


Eustress: prepares to meet challenges,

helpful
Distress: harmful

Stressor: any stimulus that produces a stress response

Stressor

The respons to stressors


Pleasant

Why do the compensation fail??


Extreme

stress

Unusual stress Long lasting stress

Normal mechanisms may not be enough

Stress response/general adaptation syndrome (GAS)


Controlled mainly by the hypothalamus Occurs in three stages:


1. An initial fight-or-flight response 2. A slower resistance reaction 3. Exhaustion

The fight-or-Flight Response


Stressor adrenal Sympathetic hypothalamus Medulla Epinephrine Response stimulate and centers of ANS

The responses
Brings

huge amounts of glucose and oxygen to the organs that are most active in warding off danger:
The brain (highly alert) The skeletal muscles (fight off an attacker) The heart (pump enough blood to the brain and

muscles)

Inhibitted nonessential body function (digestive, urinary, and reproductive activities)

The responses..

Reduction of blood flow to nonessential organs:


Kidney: promotes release of renin

activate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway Retaining Na+ by kidney water retention elevated blood pressure & helps preserve body fluid volume

The resistance reaction

Initiated by hypothalamic releasing hormones, a longer lasting response The releasing hormones involved:
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Growth hormone-releasing hormone

(GHRH)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

CRH

Cortisol:

Stimulate gluconeogenesis by liver cells,

breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids cells use glucose, fatty acids, amino acids to produce ATP or to repair damaged cells
Reduced inflammation

GHRH

IGFs:

Protein synthesis Lipolysis and glycogenolysis in the liver Elevation of blood glucose Tissue repair

TRH

Thyroid hormones:
Increasing use of glucose for ATP

production

Supply additional ATP for metabolically

active cells (combine action with hGH)

The resistance reaction..

Helps the body continue fighting a stressor long after the previous stage dissipates Occasionally, the resistance stage fails to combat the stressor, and the body moves into the stage of exhaustion

Exhaustion

The body become so tired & depleted -- exhaustion Prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol and other hormones
wasting of muscle, suppresion of the immune system, ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, failure of pancreatic beta cells

Stress and disease

The

exact role: still unclear

Stress related disorders include: gastritis, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, anxiety, depression

Aging and the endocrine system


Shrinkage

Some

endocrine glands shrink as we get older

The performance may or may not be compromised

Aging..

Decrease in production of hGH muscle atrophy Decrease production of thyroid hormones by thyroid gland:
decrease in metabolic rate, increase in body fat, hypothyroidism less negative feed back the level of TSH

increases

Aging..

Blood level of PTH rises due to inadequate dietary intake of calcium Calcitriol and calcitonin (CT) levels are lower

Age related decrease in bone mass osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures

Aging..

Aging.. Pancreas gland

Aging.. The thymus

Aging.. The ovaries

Decrease in size with age no longer respond to gonadotropins decrease output of estrogens lead to such condition:
Osteoporosis High blood cholesterol Atherosclerosis FSH and LH levels are high

Aging.. The testes


Decrease in testosteron production Can still produce active sperm in normal numbers The effects are not usually change (until very old age)

Contribution of the endocrine system in homeostasis


For

all body systems: together with the nervous system, regulate activity and growth of target cells throughout the body; regulate metabolism, uptake of glucose, and molecules used for ATP production by body cells

Integumentary system

Androgen stimulate growth of axillary and pubic hair, activation of sebaceous glands, Regulate MSH darkening of skin

Skeletal system

hGH & IGF: stimulate bone growth Estrogen: enclosure of epiphyseal plates, help maintain bone mass PTH and calcitonin: regulate calcium and bone matrix Thyroid hormone: normal development and growth of skeleton

Muscular system

Epinephrine and norepinephrine: increase blood flow PTH: regulate Ca level for muscle contraction Glucagon, insulin: regulate metabolisme in muscle fibers hGH, IGF, thyroid: maintain the muscle mass

Nervous sytem

PTH Thyroid, insulin, growth hormone

Cardiovascular system

EPO ADH Epinephrine norepinephrine ANP

Lymphatic system and immunity

Cortisol

Respiratory system

Epinephrine and norepinephrine EPO

Digestive system

Epinephrine norepinephrine Gastrin Peptida YY Leptin Calcitriol

Urinary system

ADH Aldosterone ANP

Reproductive system

GRH/GIH LH/FSH Esterogen/progesteron Prolactin oxytocin