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Fisiologi: Homeostasis Hormon

Titis Nurmasitoh Departemen Fisiologi FK UII

Pokok Bahasan

tubuh terhadap stress

Pertumbuhan, perkembangan, dan efek penuaan terhadap kelenjar endokrin Peran sistem endokrin pada homeostasis setiap sistem Ketidakseimbangan endokrin terhadap homeostasis

The body ability to maintain internal stability (homeo similar; stasis condition

Internal Failure

Abnormal growth of cells

Cancer, benign tumours Production of antibodies by the body

against its own tissues (autoimmune disease)

Premature death of cells or the failure of

cell processes

Inherited disorders

External Causes

Toxic chemicals Physical trauma Foreign invaders (viruses & bacteria)





Stressful living Imbalance nutrition Less physical activity

(less fiber, more fat, shifted-food culture)

The stress respons

Nowadays situation: stressful living

Eustress: prepares to meet challenges,

Distress: harmful

Stressor: any stimulus that produces a stress response


The respons to stressors


Why do the compensation fail??



Unusual stress Long lasting stress

Normal mechanisms may not be enough

Stress response/general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Controlled mainly by the hypothalamus Occurs in three stages:

1. An initial fight-or-flight response 2. A slower resistance reaction 3. Exhaustion

The fight-or-Flight Response

Stressor adrenal Sympathetic hypothalamus Medulla Epinephrine Response stimulate and centers of ANS

The responses

huge amounts of glucose and oxygen to the organs that are most active in warding off danger:
The brain (highly alert) The skeletal muscles (fight off an attacker) The heart (pump enough blood to the brain and


Inhibitted nonessential body function (digestive, urinary, and reproductive activities)

The responses..

Reduction of blood flow to nonessential organs:

Kidney: promotes release of renin

activate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway Retaining Na+ by kidney water retention elevated blood pressure & helps preserve body fluid volume

The resistance reaction

Initiated by hypothalamic releasing hormones, a longer lasting response The releasing hormones involved:
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Growth hormone-releasing hormone


Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)



Stimulate gluconeogenesis by liver cells,

breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids cells use glucose, fatty acids, amino acids to produce ATP or to repair damaged cells
Reduced inflammation



Protein synthesis Lipolysis and glycogenolysis in the liver Elevation of blood glucose Tissue repair


Thyroid hormones:
Increasing use of glucose for ATP


Supply additional ATP for metabolically

active cells (combine action with hGH)

The resistance reaction..

Helps the body continue fighting a stressor long after the previous stage dissipates Occasionally, the resistance stage fails to combat the stressor, and the body moves into the stage of exhaustion


The body become so tired & depleted -- exhaustion Prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol and other hormones
wasting of muscle, suppresion of the immune system, ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract, failure of pancreatic beta cells

Stress and disease


exact role: still unclear

Stress related disorders include: gastritis, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, anxiety, depression

Aging and the endocrine system



endocrine glands shrink as we get older

The performance may or may not be compromised


Decrease in production of hGH muscle atrophy Decrease production of thyroid hormones by thyroid gland:
decrease in metabolic rate, increase in body fat, hypothyroidism less negative feed back the level of TSH



Blood level of PTH rises due to inadequate dietary intake of calcium Calcitriol and calcitonin (CT) levels are lower

Age related decrease in bone mass osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures


Aging.. Pancreas gland

Aging.. The thymus

Aging.. The ovaries

Decrease in size with age no longer respond to gonadotropins decrease output of estrogens lead to such condition:
Osteoporosis High blood cholesterol Atherosclerosis FSH and LH levels are high

Aging.. The testes

Decrease in testosteron production Can still produce active sperm in normal numbers The effects are not usually change (until very old age)

Contribution of the endocrine system in homeostasis


all body systems: together with the nervous system, regulate activity and growth of target cells throughout the body; regulate metabolism, uptake of glucose, and molecules used for ATP production by body cells

Integumentary system

Androgen stimulate growth of axillary and pubic hair, activation of sebaceous glands, Regulate MSH darkening of skin

Skeletal system

hGH & IGF: stimulate bone growth Estrogen: enclosure of epiphyseal plates, help maintain bone mass PTH and calcitonin: regulate calcium and bone matrix Thyroid hormone: normal development and growth of skeleton

Muscular system

Epinephrine and norepinephrine: increase blood flow PTH: regulate Ca level for muscle contraction Glucagon, insulin: regulate metabolisme in muscle fibers hGH, IGF, thyroid: maintain the muscle mass

Nervous sytem

PTH Thyroid, insulin, growth hormone

Cardiovascular system

EPO ADH Epinephrine norepinephrine ANP

Lymphatic system and immunity


Respiratory system

Epinephrine and norepinephrine EPO

Digestive system

Epinephrine norepinephrine Gastrin Peptida YY Leptin Calcitriol

Urinary system

ADH Aldosterone ANP

Reproductive system

GRH/GIH LH/FSH Esterogen/progesteron Prolactin oxytocin