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Theoretical studies of liquid desiccant columns for hybrid air conditioner

Introduction
Application of low humidity
Essential for archives, museums, etc. Desirable for human comfort

Vapor compression system


Dehumidification by vapor condensation High COP but deep dehumidification not possible

Desiccant cooling system


Dehumidification by absorption of vapor Deep dehumidification but low COP

Proposed hybrid system


Dehumidification by both condensation and absorption High COP and more dehumidification
2

Objectives
Analysis of three circuits a) Solution circuit b) Vapor compression circuit c) Air circuits Simulation of the system Fabrication and testing of a 0.8 TR capacity LDVC hybrid system

LITERATURE SURVEY

Yadav, 1995

Conducted experiments in conventional vapour compression system and liquid desiccant cycle. It has an energy saving of 80% at 90% latent heat load.

Khalid et al., 1997

Simulated an open cycle vapour absorption and liquid desiccant system using LiBr for the process of absorption and dehumidification found suited for hot and humid climate
Liquid desiccant cooling systems enable efficient energy storage for air dehumidification and air-cooling using low temperature heat.

Kessling et al., 1998

Meunier, 1998

Shows that solid sorption is very effective low grade cooling not only for air conditioning but for deep-freezing also.

Fanger, 1999

The perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) increases with a decrease in relative humidity, as long as it Is kept between 30 to 70 % Conducted experiments in a solar simulator on solid desiccant regeneration and air dehumidification for air conditioning in a tropical humid climate, and found that regeneration rate is strongly dependent on insolation, and slightly affected by air flow rate. 5

Techajunta et al., 1999

Armando et al., 2000

Used lithium bromide as the liquid desiccant, modeled an open system and observed the system to be more efficient in colder and drier climates and that system efficiency can be improved by employing indoor air re-circulation

Jain, 2001

The temperature required for regenerating the liquid desiccant is low; therefore solar energy can be utilized effectively.

Dieng and Wang 2001

Conducted review on solar adsorption technologies and emphasized the possibility of using non-polluting materials and energy saving (more than 50%) as the important characteristics .

Goktun and Deha Er, 2001

Conducted theoretical evaluation of the maximum overall performance of a hybrid air conditioning system which consists of a conventional vapour compression system (VCS) cascaded with solar assisted vapour absorption system. Studied the desorption characteristics of liquid desiccant bed for solar dehumidification for air conditioning systems. Air stream at a low grade temperature is applied in the desorption process 6

Ahmed, 2003

Block diagram of the proposed hybrid system


( Supply air ) conditioned space

A3
Dehumidifier

A6
Regenerator

D2

Ar A4

Evaporator

A2
D1

A4

Condenser

A5

A1 R4
D4
Expn. Valve

R2
D2

R3

Pump1

Compressor

R1
D3
Pump2

VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM WITH AIR CIRCUIT AND DESICCANT LOOP

Process diagram
( Supply air ) conditioned space

A3
Dehumidifier

A6
Regenerator

D2
Condenser

D4

A4 A1

Evaporator

A2
D1

A4

A5

Expn. Valve
Pump1

D2

Compressor

R4

R2

R3

A4

A6

R1
D3 D4
Pump2

A5 A1 Ar A2 A 3
humidity ratio

dry bulb temperature


VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEM WITH AIR CIRCUIT AND DESICCANT LOOP

Computational Model
air out

Counter flow
solution in

ma ha+dha Wa+dWa ta+dta

ms hs x ts

dZ ms+dm hs+ dhs x+dx ts+dts

ma ha Wa ta

air in

solution out

Algorithm
1. Calculate the enthalpy of inlet air: 2. Calculate heat transfer coefficient: 3. Estimate Lewis number: 4. Estimate mass transfer coefficient: ha = f(ta, Wa) hc = f(v) Le = (/D)2/3 hm = hc/Cp Le

5. Estimate interface vapor pressure, humidity ratio and enthalpy: pi = ps = f(xs, ts); Wi = 0.622 pi/(pt pi); hi = f(ts, Wi) 6. Estimate the moisture absorbed and total heat transfer: dm= hm dA(Wi-Wa); dq = hc dA (hi-ha)/cpm 7. Estimate air properties at exit of the element: Wa* = Wa + dWa; ha* = ha +dha; ta* = f(ha*,Wa*) 8. Estimate solution flow rate, concentration, enthalpy and temperature at exit of the element: ms* = ms + dm = ms +dWa ; xs* = 1-[((1-xs ) ms-(madWa) )/ms*]; hs* = hs + (dq/ms*); ta* = f(hs*,xs*)
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Table 1: Performance parameters


Parameter Range 6-22 6-10 30-50 15-30 0.05 - 150 Mean value

Table 2: Fixed/operating parameters

Inlet air temperature, taa1, oC


Inlet air specific humidity, Waa1, g/kg Inlet air temperature, tar1, oC (reg)

Parameter 14 Inlet solution concentration, xsa1,% 8 45 20 Varied Inlet solution concentration, xsr1,% (reg) Inlet solution temperature, tsa1, oC Inlet solution temperature, tsr1, oC (reg) Height of absorber and regenerator, cm

value 45 30 20 20 40

Inlet air specific humidity, War1, g/kg


S/A flow ratio (%)

11

Absorber
Parameter Variation Influence Result
dehumidification suppressed solution concentration Solution temperature dehumidification enhanced solution concentration Solution temperature dehumidification enhanced solution concentration

Air temperature

increase

solution T solution VP

Air specific humidity

increase

air VP

S/A ratio

increase

capacity

Regenerator
Parameter Variation Influence Result
desorption increased solution concentration Solution temperature desorption suppressed solution concentration

Air temperature

increase

solution T solution VP

Air specific humidity

increase

air VP

S/A ratio

increase

capacity

desorption enhanced solution concentration

COUNTER FLOW

14

Change in sp.humidity,Waa,g/kg

Change in air temperature,taa, C

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

10

10

Inlet air sp.humidity,Waa1,g/kg

Inlet air sp.humidity,Waa1,g/kg

EFFECT OF INLET AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (ABSORBER)


Change in sp.humidity,Waa,g/kg
o

3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18


o

Change in air temperature,taa, C

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
o

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

20

22

24

20

22

24

Inlet air temperature,taa1, C

Inlet air temperature,taa1, C

EFFECT OF INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (ABSORBER)

15

Outlet solution concentration,xsa2,%

Outlet solution temperature,tsa2, C

45

22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 6

40 35

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

30 25

20

15 6

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4% 7 8 9 10

10

Inlet air sp.humidity,Waa1,g/kg

Inlet air sp.humidity,Waa1,g/kg

EFFECT OF INLET AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (ABSORBER)


Outlet solution concentration,xsa2,%
45

Outlet solution temperature,tsa2, C

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
o

24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
o

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

20

22

24

Inlet air temperature,taa1, C

20

22

24

Inlet air temperature,taa1, C

EFFECT OF INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (ABSORBER)

16

Change in sp. humidity, War,g/kg

5.5

Change in air temperature, tar, C

5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

S/A=0.2% S/A=0.4% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

12

10 8 6

S/A=0.2% S/A=0.4% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

28

30

32

0 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

Inlet air sp. humidity, War1,g/kg

Inlet air sp. humidity, War1,g/kg

EFFECT OF INLET AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (REGENERATOR)


Change in sp. humidity, War,g/kg
5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 34 36 38 40 42 44 46
o

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

Change in air temperature, tar, C

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 34

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

48

50

52

36

38

40

42

44

46
o

48

50

52

Inlet air temperature, tar1, C

Inlet air temperature, tar1, C

EFFECT OF INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (REGENERATOR)

17

Outlet solution concentration, xsr2,%

54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 14 16 18 20 22 24

Outlet solution temperature, tsr2, C

S/A=0.2% S/A=0.4% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 S/A=0.2% S/A=0.4% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

26

28

30

32

Inlet air sp. humidity, War1,g/kg

Inlet air sp. humidity, War1,g/kg

EFFECT OF INLET AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (REGENERATOR)


Outlet solution concentration, xsr2,%
S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

Outlet solution temperature, tsr2, C

54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 34 36 38 40 42 44 46
o

52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46
o

S/A=0.05% S/A=0.2% S/A=0.8% S/A=1.6% S/A=3.2% S/A=6.4%

48

50

52

48

50

52

Inlet air temperature, tar1, C

Inlet air temperature, tar1, C

EFFECT OF INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (REGENERATOR)

18

Change in sp.humidity,W,g/kg

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 2

ts1=12 C ts1=18 C ts1=24 C ts1=30 C ts1=40 C ts1=50 C


3 4 5 6 7
o o o o o

ABSORBER

Change in sp. humidity, Wr,g/kg

S/A ratio,%

tsr1=10 C tsr1=15 C
o o o o o o

tsr1=20 C tsr1=25 C tsr1=30 C tsr1=40 C tsr1=50 C


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

REGENERATOR

S/A ratio,%

19

COUPLED COLUMNS

20

Block diagram of coupled columns

21

Computational Model- Coupled columns


Dehumdified air out Strong solution in Humidified air out mar har+dhar War+dWar tar+dtar Weak solution in

maa haa+dhaa Waa+dWaa taa+dtaa


Absorber

msa hsa xs tsa

msr hsr xw tsr

Regenerator

dZ msa+dm hsa+ dhsa xs+dx tsa+dtsa Weak solution out

dZ

maa haa Waa taa

mar har War tar

msr+dm hsr+ dhsr xw+dx tsr+dtsr

Process air in

Regenerator air in

Strong solution out

22

Table 3. Operating parameters


Parameter Process air temperature, taa1, oC Process air specific humidity, Waa1, g/kg Regeneration air temperature, tar1, oC Regenerator air specific humidity, War1, g/kg S/A flow ratio (%) Absorber Regenerator 0.3-1.6 0.3-1.6 0.8 0.8 Range 10-18 6-10 35-50 15-30 Mean value 14 8 45 20

3.0

(S/A)a=0.8%

(S/A)r=0.4%

(S/A)a=0.8%

(S/A)r=0.4% (S/A)r=0.6% (S/A)r=0.8% (S/A)r=1.0%

Decrease of specific humidity in absorber,Waa, g/kg

Increase of air temperature o in absorber, taa, C

(S/A)r=0.6%
2.5

(S/A)r=0.8% (S/A)r=1.0%

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5 10 12 14 16
o

18

1 10 12 14 16
o

18

Process air temperature , taa1, C


6 2.5

EFFECT OF PROCESS AIR TEMPERATURE (ABSORBER)


(S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)r=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)r=0.6% (S/A)r=0.8%
2.0 5

Process air temperature, taa1, C


(S/A)r=0.4% (S/A)r=0.6% (S/A)r=0.8% (S/A)r=1.0%

Increase of specific humidity in regenerator, War, g/kg

(S/A)r=1.0%

Decrease of air temperature o in regenerator, tar, C

1.5

1.0

0.5 0 10 12 14 16
o

18

10

12

14

16
o

18

Process air temperature, taa1, C

Process air temperature, taa1, C

24

EFFECT OF PROCESS AIR TEMPERATURE (REGENERATOR)

3.0

(S/A)a=0.2%

(S/A)a=0.2% (S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.6%

Decrease of specific humidity in the absorber,Waa g/kg

Increase of air temperature o in the absorber,taa C

(S/A)a=0.4%
2.5

(S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.6%

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5
0 6 7 8 9 10

0.0 6 7 8 9 10

Specific humidity of process air, Waa1, g/kg

Specific humidity of process air, Waa1, g/kg

EFFECT OF PROCESS AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (ABSORBER)


4.5

11

Increase of specific humidity in the regenerator,Waa g/kg

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6

Decrease of air temperature o in the regenerator,tar C

(S/A)a=0.2% (S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.6%

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

(S/A)a=0.2% (S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.6%

10

1 6 7 8 9 10

Specific humidity of process air, Waa1, g/kg

Specific humidity of process air, Waa1, g/kg

EFFECT OF PROCESS AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (REGENERATOR)

25

3.0

(S/A)a=0.2%

(S/A)a=0.2%

Increase of air temperature o in the absorber,taa C

2.5

(S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.0% (S/A)a=1.6%

(S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.0% (S/A)a=1.6%

Decrease of specific humidity in the absorber,Waa g/kg

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

0 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

Specific humidity of regenerator air, War1, g/kg


Increase of specific humidity in the regenerator,War g/kg

Specific humidity of regenerator air, War1, g/kg


10

EFFECT OF REGENERATOR AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (ABSORBER)


4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0

(S/A)a=0.2% (S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=1.0% (S/A)a=1.6% (S/A)a=0.8%

(S/A)a=0.2% (S/A)a=0.4% (S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)a=1.0% (S/A)a=1.6%

Decrease of temperature o in the regenerator,tar C

8 7 6 5 4 3 2

0.5 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

Specific humidity of regenerator air, War1, g/kg

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

Specific humidity of regenerator air, War1, g/kg

26

EFFECT OF REGENERATOR AIR SPECIFIC HUMIDITY (REGENERATOR)

Decrease of specific humidity in the absorber,Waa g/kg

2.5

(S/A)a=0.8%

(S/A)r=0.3% (S/A)r=0.4%

(S/A)a=0.8%

(S/A)r=0.3% (S/A)r=0.4% (S/A)r=0.6% (S/A)r=0.8%

Increase of air temperature o in the absorber,taa C


45
o

(S/A)r=0.6%
2.0

(S/A)r=0.8%

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 35 40 50
0 35 40 45
o

50

Temperature of regenerator air, tar1 C


(S/A)a=0.8% (S/A)r=0.3% (S/A)r=0.4%
1.5

Temperature of regenerator air, tar1 C

EFFECT OF REGENERATOR AIR TEMPERATURE (ABSORBER)


4

(S/A)a=0.8%

(S/A)r=0.3% (S/A)r=0.4% (S/A)r=0.6% (S/A)r=0.8%

Increase of secific humidity in the regenerator,War g/kg

(S/A)r=0.8%

decrease of air temperature o in the regenerator,tar C


45
o

(S/A)r=0.6%

1.0

0.5

0
0.0 35 40 50

Temperature of regenerator air, tar1 C

35

40

45

Temperature of regenerator air, tar1 C

50

EFFECT OF REGENERATOR AIR TEMPERATURE (REGENERATOR)

27

EFFECT OF PROCESS AIR TEMPERATURE ON SOLUTION CONCENTRATION

Regenerator exit

51 48 45 42 39

tar1=50 C tar1=45 C tar1=40 C


o o

(S/A)a=(S/A)r= 0.3

Solution concentration %

Absorber exit

36 33 30 27 10

tar1=35 C tar1=50 C tar1=45 C tar1=40 C tar1=35 C


o o o o

12

14

16
o

18

Process air temperature,taa1 C


28

Conclusions
At high range of S/A ratio Solution has to be necessarily pre-cooled. Cooling of air will only complement the dehumidification. Change in humidity increases with increase in air specific humidity, solution concentration and decrease in air temperature at the inlet. At low range of S/A ratio Air has to be pre-cooled for the sustained dehumidification of air. Solution temperature has negligible influence on dehumidification.

29

Conclusions
Desiccant to assist only in dehumidification Entire cooling supported by compression system Regeneration achieved by warm condenser air Air properties decide the process whether it is absorption or regeneration

Regeneration is possible at temperatures above 30oC


Thus the proposed hybrid system is feasible
30

Thank You