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Fundamentals Exam

UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Fundamentals Exam
Thermodynamics Review

Fundamentals Exam
I assume you have applied?!? Morning Session: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDAGeneral 120 questions, pt each Afternoon Session: General or Discipline Specific- 60 questions, 1 pt each

Fundamentals Exam
What to do in the afternoon? Your call...pass/fail is about the same. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Preparation easier for general.

Fundamentals Exam
Morning Session: 11 out of 120 thermo questions Afternoon General Session: 6 out of 60 thermo questions

UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Fundamentals Exam
NCEES Reference Handbook Have you got it? Why not? How do you get it? How do you use it? www.ncees.org

UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Fundamentals Exam
Morning session Generally unrelated. About 2 minutes UNIVERSITY OF per question. FLORIDA Fast recall essential. Use a marking system to keep track of your progress. Afternoon: 4 minutes per question.

Fundamentals Exam
Process of Elimination Cross out wrong answers first. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Wrong answers are sometimes easier to find than right ones! Units on answer is sometimes a clue. Answers are seldom given with more than 3 sig figs, your choice should be the closest to your solution.

Fundamentals Exam
Guessing No penalty for guessing. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Leave 10 minutes for each session for educated guessing.

Fundamentals Exam
Hint: Write correct answer in the margin of UNIVERSITY OF your test booklet beside the question FLORIDA and wait to you get to the end of the page before transferring to the answer key. Lookout for those long, drawn out questions questions with four paragraphs for answers!!

Fundamentals Exam
Try working the following problem (you have two minutes for each type problem like this): If a sample experiencing a change of temperature from 23 deg C to 46 deg C also experiences a change in specific UNIVERSITYenthalpy OF of 120 kJ/kg, of what material is the sample most likely to be composed? You can use the data in the FLORIDA NCEES Supplied Reference Handbook or the tables in the back of your book. Better to practice these problems with your NCEES handbook..remember to be at one with this book!!

Did you get Helium? There are sample tests on the NCEES website. Try these out. There are also sample tests in books like Barrons How to Prepare for the Fundamentals of Engineering FE/EIT Exam. The bookstores have books like this to help you review for the exam.

Fundamentals Exam
Select the best response for an isolated system. UNIVERSITY OF a. The entropy of the system remains FLORIDA constant b. The heat transfer equals the work done c. The heat transfer equals the internal energy change d. The heat transfer is zero.

Fundamentals Exam
Select the best response for an isolated system. a. The entropy of the system remains constant b. The heat transfer equals the work done UNIVERSITY OF c. The heat transfer equals the internal energy FLORIDA change d. The heat transfer is zero. For a closed thermodynamic system: Q w = DU + DKE + DPE, isolated implies Q = W = 0, (d) is the answer, (b) is close but not complete

Fundamentals Exam
Two kilograms of air are contained in a cylinder. If 80 kJ of heat are added to the air, estimate the temperature rise if UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA the pressure is held constant. Cp = 1.0 kJ/kgK, Cv = 0.716kJ/kgK and k = 1.4. a. 56 deg C b. 40 deg C c. 33 deg C d. 28 deg C

Fundamentals Exam
Two kilograms of air are contained in a cylinder. If 80 kJ of heat are added to the air, estimate the temperature rise if the pressure is held UNIVERSITY OF constant. Cp = 1.0 kJ/kgK, Cv = FLORIDA 0.716kJ/kgK and k = 1.4. a. 56 deg C b. 40 deg C c. 33 deg C d. 28 deg C Answer is (b) Q = mDh = m CpDT, 80 = 2*1.0*DT, DT= 40 deg C

Fundamentals Exam
Steam at high temperature and pressure passes through a half open globe valve. UNIVERSITY OF Select the property that remains FLORIDA constant through the valve. a. enthalpy b. temperature c. pressure d. entropy

Fundamentals Exam
Steam at high temperature and pressure passes through a half open globe valve. Select the property that remains constant through the valve. UNIVERSITY OF a. enthalpy FLORIDA b. temperature c. pressure d. entropy Answer is (a), energy equation q-ws = Dh + Dpe + Dke, q = 0, ws = 0, Dpe = 0, Dke=0 therefore Dh = 0, an isenthalpic process, enthalpy is constant

Fundamentals Exam
For an isentropic process of an ideal gas (k= 1.4), with an initial pressure of 50 pounds per square inch absolute, an initial specific UNIVERSITY OF volume of 8.2 cubic feet per pound mass, and FLORIDA a final pressure of 120 psia, what is the final value of the specific volume? a. 8.2 cubic feet/lbm b. 3.42 cubic feet/lbm c. 19.7 cubic feet/lbm d. 4.39 cubic feet/lbm

Fundamentals Exam
For an isentropic process of an ideal gas (k= 1.4), with an initial pressure of 50 pounds per square inch absolute, an initial specific volume of 8.2 cubic feet per pound mass, and a final pressure of 120 psia, what is the final value of the specific volume? UNIVERSITY OF a. 8.2 cubic feet/lbm FLORIDA b. 3.42 cubic feet/lbm c. 19.7 cubic feet/lbm d. 4.39 cubic feet/lbm Answer is (d). P1v1k = P2v2k, v2 = v1(P1/P2)1/k = (8.2)*(50/120)1/1.4 = 4.39 ft3/lbm

Fundamentals Exam
How much energy must be transferred through heat interaction to raise the UNIVERSITY OF temperature of a 4 kilogram sample of FLORIDA methane in a closed system from 15 deg C to 35 deg C? a. 34.8 kJ b. 45 kJ c. 139 kJ d. 180 kJ

Fundamentals Exam
How much energy must be transferred through heat interaction to raise the temperature of a 4 kilogram sample of methane in a closed system from 15 deg C to 35 deg C? UNIVERSITY OF a. 34.8 kJ FLORIDA b. 45 kJ c. 139 kJ d. 180 kJ Answer is ( c). Q- w = DU + DKE + DPE Closed system. Q = DU = mDu = mCvDT = (4kg)*(1.74kJ/kg K)*(35-15 deg C)= 139.2 kJ

Fundamentals Exam
A tank contains 0.02m3 of liquid and 1.98 m3 of vapor. If the density of the liquid is 960 3 and that of the vapor is 0.5kg/m3, what kg/m UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA is the quality of the mixture?

a. b. c. d.

5.2% 4.9% 2.04% 1.01%

Fundamentals Exam
A tank contains 0.02m3 of liquid and 1.98 m3 of vapor. If the density of the liquid is 960 kg/m3 and that of the vapor is 0.5kg/m3, what is the quality of the mixture? UNIVERSITY OF a. 5.2% FLORIDA b. 4.9% c. 2.04% d. 1.01% Answer is (b). x = mg/(mg + mf) = (1.98)*(.5)/((1.98*0.5)+(0.02*960)) = 0.049 or 4.9%

Fundamentals Exam
Which of the following is an intensive property? UNIVERSITYa. OF Pressure FLORIDA b. Entropy c. Internal Energy d. Enthalpy Answer is (a) Pressure does not depend on mass , extensive properties are proportional to mass

Fundamentals Exam
Which of the following devices is possible? a. A cyclic machine that will experience no other interaction than to produce energy through a work interaction, while transferring energy from a high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through heat interactions. b. A cyclic machine that will experience no other interaction than to transfer to a thermal reservoir an amount of energy equal to the amount of energy it UNIVERSITY OF receives from a work interaction. c. A device that will change the thermodynamic state of a material from on FLORIDA equilibrium state to another without experiencing a change in the amount of energy contained in the material, in the amount of material, or in the external forces placed on the material. d. A cyclic machine that will experience no other interaction than to accept from a heat interaction with a high-temperature reservoir an amount of energy equal to the amount of energy it receives from a work interaction. Answer is (a). Note that this problem takes about a minute to read!! You better understand this one as you read it or you wont do this in 2 minutes!! (b) is not right because entropy decreases continuously, (c) is not right because you cant be in two equilibrium states, (d) is not correct because energy is increasing continuously

Fundamentals Exam
Energy is added in the amount of 50 kJ in a heat interaction to a closed system while 30 kJ of work is done by the system. The change of the internal energy of the system is: UNIVERSITYa. OF 80 kJ FLORIDA b. 20 kJ c. 20kJ d. 80kJ Answer is (b). DE = Q-W = +50kJ-(+30kJ) = 20 kJ This is an example of how you need to know the first law and know the correct sign conventions for work and energy. Q into a system is + W done by a system is + (remember it is a positive thing to get work out of a student!!)

Fundamentals Exam
Devices: Turbines UNIVERSITY OF Compressors FLORIDA Diffusers Nozzles Throttling Devices Heat Exchangers

Fundamentals Exam
Devices: Turbines UNIVERSITY OF Compressors FLORIDA mi(hi +Vi2/2 + gzi) me (he +Ve2/2 + gze)+Q W = 0 Assume well insulated, assume Vi=Ve and steady flow mi = me,and zi = ze Then: m(hi he) = W Compressors: W is Turbines: W is +

Fundamentals Exam
Devices: Nozzles and Diffusers UNIVERSITY OF 2/2 + gz ) m (h +V 2/2 + m (h +V FLORIDA i i i i e e e gze)+Q W = 0 Assume well insulated, no shaft work, and steady flow mi = me,and zi = ze Then: (hi he +Vi2/2 -Ve2/2 ) = 0 Ve > Vi for nozzles and Ve<Vi for diffusers

Fundamentals Exam
Devices: Throttling Device UNIVERSITY OF 2/2 + gz ) m (h +V 2/2 + m (h +V FLORIDA i i i i e e e gze)+Q W = 0 Assume well insulated, assume Vi=Ve and steady flow mi = me, zi = ze and no shaft work Then: (hi he) = 0 isenthalpic

Fundamentals Exam
Devices: Heat Exchangers UNIVERSITY OF 2/2 + gz ) m (h +V 2/2 + m (h +V FLORIDA i i i i e e e gze)+Q W = 0 Assume well insulated, assume Vi=Ve and steady flow mi = me, no shaft work and zi = ze Then: m(hi he) = Q

Fundamentals Exam
Cycles: Carnot Reversed Carnot UNIVERSITY OF Otto FLORIDA Rankine Refrigeration Afternoon: if mechanical: two stage refrig cycle, air refrigeration, psychrometric cycles, Brayton cycle, Brayton cycle with regeneration, etc.

Fundamentals Exam
Review state functions, specifically the concept of quality, x UNIVERSITY OF u = xug + (1-x)uf FLORIDA h = xhg + (1-x)hf s = xsg + (1-x)sf v = xvg +(1-x)vf Look at Rankine cycle, steam quality out of a turbine

Thermodynamics Review
A Carnot engine operates between 300C and 40 C. What is the efficiency of the engine?
UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA (A) (B) (C) (D)

87% 65% 45% 30%

Thermodynamics Review
Solution: (C) See Page 49 in Reference Handbook Carnot Cycle efficiency: FLORIDA
UNIVERSITY OF

c = (TH TL ) / TH = 1 TL / TH

( 40 273) K c = 1 = .45 = 45% (300 273) K


Not (A): If you got (A) you didnt use the absolute temperature units.

40o C c = 1 = .8666 = 86.7% 45% o 300 C

When in doubt use absolute.

Thermodynamics Review
Refrigerant 134a is isentropically compressed in a compressor from a saturated vapor state at 0.4 MPa UNIVERSITY OF pressure to 2 MPa pressure. The work required to run FLORIDA the compressor is: (A) 130 kJ/kg

(B) -100 kJ/kg


(C) 100kJ/kg (D) -60kJ/kg

Thermodynamics Review
Solution: (B) See Pages 48 and 55 in Reference Handbook for First Law (energy OF balance) and p-h table for Refrigerant 134a UNIVERSITY FLORIDA Use the Chart: The question states that the refrigerant is in a saturated vapor state, therefore the enthalpy can be obtained by finding the intersection line for the given pressures and the right side of the dome respectively. hi 330(kJ / kg ) and he 430 (kJ / kg)

The exit enthalpy has the same s as the inlet but at a higher P. Energy balance:

W = hi he = 330(kJ / kg) 430(kJ / kg) = 100(kJ / kg)


The answer is negative because work is put into the system.

Thermodynamics
The Air Standard Assumptions
UNIVERSITY OF

for gas powered cycles


the working fluid is air which continuously circulates through the system, acts as an ideal gas all processes are internally reversible combustion process is approximated by a heat addition process from external source exhaust process is approximated by a heat rejection process

FLORIDA for Otto cycle, diesel cycle and Brayton cycle

Thermodynamics
The Cold Air Standard Assumptions
UNIVERSITY OF

all of above assumptions


assumes specific heats are constant and are evaluated at 25 deg C or 77 deg F all of the above assumptions are made to simplify a very complex cycle

FLORIDA

Thermodynamics
The Otto Cycle, aka SIE, Spark Ignition Engine

This cycle applies to two stroke and four stoke FLORIDA engines. It is an ideal representation of the process.
UNIVERSITY OF

1-2: isentropic compression (compression stroke) 2-3: constant volume heat addition (power stroke) 3-4: isentropic expansion (exhaust stroke) 4-1: constant volume heat rejection (intake stroke)

Thermodynamics

UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Thermodynamics
Model this as a closed system. No major changes in kinetic or potential energy. Energy equation becomes:
UNIVERSITY OF-w (q -q )+(w

FLORIDA

in

out

in

out)

= Du

But more importantly, lets look at the processes from 2 to 3 and 4 to 1: qin = u3-u2 = Cv(T3-T2) qout = u4 u1 = Cv(T4 T1) (no work done during these processes) th,Otto = wnet/qin

Looking at the first law, in = out


wnet = qin qout Therefore, th,Otto = wnet/qin = (qin-qout)/qout

Thermodynamics
th,Otto = wnet/qin = (qin-qout)/qout Substituting for qin and qout th,Otto = 1 ((T4-T1)/(T3-T2)
UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA
Since 1 to2 and 3 to 4 are isentropic processes, we can substitute our isentropic relationships for T and v. Therefore, (see derivation on page 360)

thOtto = 1

1 r
k 1

Where the compression ratio r = V1/V2 = v1/v2 And k = specific heat ratio = Cp/Cv

Thermodynamics
Lets look at an example: Assume a compression ratio of 8.

Assume airOF at the beginning of the process UNIVERSITY is at 17 deg C and 100KPa. FLORIDA
Assume 800 kJ/kg of heat is added in the heat addition process (this would be equivalent to the fuel added to the cycle). Assume constant specific heats. The efficiency of this cycle would equal:

thOtto = 1

1 r
k 1

= 1

1 8
(1.41)

= 0.565or56.5%

Thermodynamics
Lets find the temperature at 3. This would be the maximum temperature our equipment would have to tolerate.

qin= 800kJ/kg = Cv(T3-T2)=0.718*(T3 T2)


UNIVERSITY OF

We need T2 to solve for T3. FLORIDA From the isentropic relationships, T1/T2 = (V2/v1)k-1 Note that r = v1/v2, Therefore, T1/T2 = (1/r)k-1

And T2 = 290K/(1/8) (1.4-1)


T2 = 666 K So T3 = (800/0.718)+666 = 1780 K or 2745deg F Can also do this assuming variable specific heats.

Thermodynamics
Lets find the pressure at 3. This would be the maximum pressure our equipment would have to tolerate.

P1v1/T1 = P2v2/T2
UNIVERSITY OF

Therefore P2 = P1v1T2/v2 T1 FLORIDA P2 = 100kPa(666K/290K)(8) = 1837 kPa And P2v2/T2 = P3v3/T3 P3 = P2T3v2/T2v3 P3 = (1837kPa)(1780K/666K)(1)

Note v2 = v3
P3 = 4910 kPa or 712 psia!!

Thermodynamics
The Brayton Cycle
http://travel.howstuffworks.com/turbine3.htm

Used to analyze gas turbines (where compression and expansion occur using rotating machinery) UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Gas Turbines usually operate as an open cycle Used in aircraft propulsion and electric power generation

Exhaust propels craft or used to generate steam.

Thermodynamics
Simple Ideal Brayton Cycle

UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Modeled as a closed cycle. Air standard assumptions are applied. Air is the working fluid. 1-2: isentropic compression 2-3: constant pressure heat addition 3-4: isentropic expansion 4-1: constant pressure heat rejection

Thermodynamics
Model this as a closed system. No major changes in kinetic or potential energy. qin = h3 h2 = Cp (T3 T2)

-q out = h1 h 4 = Cp(T1 T4) UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA Or qout = Cp(T4 T1)


th,Brayton = wnet/qin Looking at the first law, in = out wnet = qin qout Therefore, th,Brayton = wnet/qin = (qin-qout)/qin

th,Brayton = 1 T1(T4/T1-1)/T2(T3/T2-1)
Substituting the isentropic relationships for T as a function of P and realizing that P2=P3 and P1 = P4, th,Brayton = 1 1/rp (k-1)/k

where rp = pressure ratio = P2/P1

Thermodynamics
For gas turbine engines, the rp ranges from 5 t0 20. Since some of the turbine work goes to run the compressor, there is another term used to describe this cycle:
UNIVERSITY OF

the back work ratio = Compressor work/turbine work. FLORIDA Usually more than half the turbine work goes to run the compressor. The back work ratio for steam power plants is very low in comparison. Gas turbines used in power plants can be brought on line very quickly whereas the Rankine cycle steam cycles take a lot of time to bring up to speed. This is why gas turbine engines are used as peaking units. With improvements in firing temperature, turbomachinery efficiency and heat recovery, the gas turbine power generating systems are now comparable to steam plants in performance, especially when the waste heat is combined with a Rankine cycle plant (bottoming cycle).

Thermodynamics
Lets look at an example: Assume a pressure ratio of 8.

Assume the air at the compressor inlet (pt UNIVERSITY OF 1)is at 300K (room temperature). FLORIDA
Assume the air at the turbine inlet(pt 3) is at 1300 K. (1880 deg F)

Find the gas temperatures at the exits of the turbine and compressor.
Find the back work ratio. Find the thermal efficiency.

Thermodynamics
Using the cold air standard assumptions and assuming negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy:

R air = 0.3704 psia ft3/lbm R


UNIVERSITY OF

C FLORIDA p = 0.24 Btu/lbm R K = 1.4 th,Brayton = 1 1/r (k-1)/k th,Brayton = 1 1/(8) (1.4-1)/1.4 th,Brayton = 0.448 or 44.8% T2/T1 = (8) (1.4-1)/1.4= 1.811

T2 = (300)( 1.811 ) = 543.4K


And T4/T3 = (1/8) (1.4-1)/1.4 = .552 T4 = (1300)(0.522) = 717.6K

Thermodynamics
qin = h3 h2 = Cp (T3 T2) qin = ( 1.005 kJ/kg K)(1300-543.4)
UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA q = C (T
out p

T1) = (1.005 kJ/kg K)(717.6-300)

th,Brayton = (qin-qout)/qin =

0.448 or 44.8%
Back work ratio = Cp(T2-T1)/Cp(T3-T4) = (543.5-300)/(1300-717.6) = 0.42

Thermodynamics
Using air standard assumptions (see text): Back work ratio = 0.402

Thermal efficiency = 42.6% UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA T 2 = 540K
T4 = 770 K Our cold air standard assumptions worked well.

Thermodynamics
The Rankine or Vapor Power Cycle
Used to steam power plant operations
UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA

Thermodynamics
Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle 1-2 isentropic compression with a pump 3-4 constant pressure heat addition in a boiler
UNIVERSITY OF

5-6 isentropic expansion in a turbine FLORIDA 6-1 constant pressure heat rejection in condenser Other points can be used to describe pipe Losses (thermal and pressure)

Thermodynamics
We will consider water(steam) as our motive fluid. The steam leaving the boiler (pts. 4 and 5) is usually superheated steam.

The steam leaving the turbine (pt 6) is UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA usually high quality steam. Remember


that s5 = s6 The water leaving the condenser is either saturated liquid or subcooled liquid water. We usually assume that h2 = h1. Or we can estimate h2 = h1 + v(P2-P1).

Lets work an example problem to


illustrate how this works.

Thermodynamics
Consider a steam power plant and assume an ideal Rankine cycle to model the system. The steam enters the turbine at 3MPa and 350 C
UNIVERSITY OF Condenser pressure is at 75 kPa.

P 4 1

FLORIDA What is the thermal efficiency for this cycle?


th,Rankine = wnet/qin= (qin qout)/qin qin = h1 h4 qout = h3-h2 h1 = h of superheated steam = 3115.3 kJ/kg s1 = s2 = 6.7428 kJ/kg K h

s2 = sf75kPa + x sfg75kPa = 6.7428 kJ/kg K


x = (6.7428-1.213)/6.2434 = 0.88 Using x and hf75kPa and hfg75kPa, we can calc. h2 = 384.39+(0.88)(2278.6)= 2402.6 kJ/kg

Thermodynamics
h3 = hf75kPa = 384.39 kJ/kg h4 = h3 approx. qin = h1 h4= 3115.3 384.39 kJ/kg = 2730.9 kJ/kg qout = h3-h2 = 384.39 - 2402.6 = -2018.2 kJ/kg th,Rankine = (2730.9-2018.2)/2730.9 = 26%
UNIVERSITY OF

P 4 1

FLORIDA

Note that I calculated the same efficiency neglecting any change in h across the pump. I assumed the pump was isenthalpic instead of isentropic.
If we do consider the pump Dh = 0, then the pump work is approx. zero and the back work ratio = 0. If the work of the pump is calculated we find that the back work ratio is 0.004 or 0.4%. Compare to the 0.42 for the Brayton cycle.

2 h