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1 Physical Characteristics of Water

_olourless _dourless _asteless

Freezing/melting point = 0C Boiling point = 100C Density = 1 g/cm

Cooling graph of water

Heating graph of water

The effects of impurities on the physical properties of water

Impurities(dissolved substances) : Influence the freezing point, melting point and boiling point of water. Increase the boiling point of water. Decrease the freezing/melting point of water.

5.2 Composition of Water

1) Water is a compound that is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. 2) The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2 : 1.

3) Water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen through the process of ________________.

Cathode : connected to negative terminal (hydrogen) Anode : connected to positive terminal (oxygen)

1. Cobalt chloride paper changes from BLUE to PINK. 2. Anhydrous copper sulphate changes from WHITE to BLUE.

5.3 Evaporation of Water

Evaporation : A process where a liquid turns into ____ at any temperature below its boiling point.

Factors affecting evaporation:

1. Temperature Evaporation becomes faster at higher temperature 2. Wind (air movement) Wind carry away the water molecules and increase the rate of evaporation 3. Humidity Evaporation become slower when humidity is high 4. Surface area Evaporation increases when the surface area is large


Boiling Heat is absorbed

Liquids become gases Takes place at any Takes place at boiling temperature at any time point

Takes place only on the surface of water A slow process

Takes place throughout the water A fast process

Application of evaporation in daily life

Which clothes dry faster?

Larger surface area enables more water molecules to escape into the air.

5.4 Solution and Solubility

Solvent : A _________ that is used to dissolve a substance. Solute : The _____________ that dissolve in a solvent. Solution : The ___________ that is formed from a solvent and a solute.

The Solubility of a Solute

1. Is the number of grams of solute that can dissolve in 100 cm of water at a specific temperature to form a saturated solution. 2. Solubility = mass of solute (g) 100cm of solvent 3. Factors affecting solubility: Nature of __________ solute Nature of __________ Temperature ______________

Factors affecting the rate of solubility:

1. ______ of solute The smaller the size of the solute, the faster it dissolves in a solvent. 2. Temperature _______________ of solvent The rate of dissolving increases at higher temperature 3. Stirring __________ The faster the rate of stirring, the faster the solute dissolves Volume of solvent 4. __________ The rate of dissolving increases when the volume increases.

Water is


Because many types of substances can dissolve in water.

It can dissolve mineral salts, alcohol, glycerin, glucose, detergents, oxygen, etc.

5.5 Acids and Alkalis


A chemical substances that has a hydrogen atom, which can be replaced by a metal or ammonium.

Acids exist in 3 states: -Solid : tartaric acid - Liquid : ethanoic acid - Gas : hydrogen chloride

The properties of acids

a) Taste _______. b) __orrosive. c) Change blue litmus paper to ______. d) Have pH values of ______ than 7. e) f) Acid + carbonate Acid + metal salt + water + carbon dioxide



Salt + hydrogen
Salt + water (neutralisation process)

g) Acid + alkali

Organic acids
Source : Living things and plants Weak acids Less corrosive Example: Formic acids (ants) Lactic acid ( sour milk) Malic acid (young apple) Tannic acid (tea) Tartaric acid (grapes)

Inorganic acids (mineral acids)

Source: rocks and minerals Strong acids Very corrosive Example : Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Hydrocloric acid Carbonic acid


The properties of alkalis

Taste __________ slippery Feel ____________like soap when touched with the fingers. __orrosive C Change red litmus paper to _______. pH value of _______ more than 7. Alkali + ammonium salt Salt + water + ammonia gas Alkali + acid

Salt + water

pH value


Acidic and alkaline substances in everyday life

Lemon juice Toothpaste Apple Tea Soap Detergent Vinegar Yoghurt