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CHAPTER 3:

Bacterial Cell
DEGEE O. GONZALES, R.M.T.
College of Medical Technology

Two Basic Cell Types:


EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES BOTH are PROTISTS

Neither plants nor animals undifferentiated unicellular organisms do not form the specialized tissues and organ systems of higher plants and animals

Basic Cell Type: EUKARYOTES


HIGHER Protists

includes ALGAE (Red, Green, Brown), FUNGI, PROTOZOA, SLIME MOLDS

Characteristics:

contain membrane enclosed organelles that have specific cellular functions have a cytoskeleton which provides support for the different organelles contain complex phospholipids, sphingolipids, histones, sterols have multiple chromosomes & nucleosomes multiply by mitosis

The EUKARYOTIC CELL:

Basic Cell Type: PROKARYOTES


LOWER Protists

includes BACTERIA, CYANOBACTERIA (Blue-green Algae), & ARCHAEBACTERIA

(Methanogens, Extreme halophiles, Thermoacidophiles)

Characteristics:

have no organelles, histones and only in rare cases contains complex phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan with muramic acid (pure to bacterial cells) are haploid with a single chromosome

divides by Binary Fission

The PROKARYOTIC CELL:

Microscopic Morphology:
Refers to the SIZE, SHAPE, and

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT of bacteria microscopically

Microscopic Morphology:

SHAPE and ARRANGEMENT


3 Morphological Categories:

COCCI (Spherical Cells) BACILLI (Rod-shaped Cells) SPIRAL (Bacillary Forms twisted in the form of a helix)

Pleomorphic bacteria that change their shapes

Microscopic Morphology: Cocci

Staphylococci

Cocci in grape-like clusters Staphylococcus areus

Microscopic Morphology: Cocci

Streptococci

Cocci in chains Streptococcus pyogenes

Microscopic Morphology: Cocci

Diplococci

Cocci in pairs Streptococcus pneumoniae

Microscopic Morphology: Cocci

Diplococci

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Microscopic Morphology: Cocci

Tetrads

Cocci in groups of four Gaffkya tetragena

Microscopic Morphology: Cocci

Sarcina

Cocci in cubital packets of 8 4 cells in front theoretically and the other 4 are behind which appears like shadows Sarcina lutea

Microscopic Morphology: Bacilli

Streptobacilli

Bacilli in chains Bacillus subtillis

Microscopic Morphology: Bacilli

Diplobacilli bacilli in pairs

Snapping diplobacilli - bacilli that bend at the point of division to give 2 organisms arranged in the form of a V Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Microscopic Morphology: Bacilli

Slipping diplobacilli - bacilli that divide and tend to arrange themselves side by side Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Microscopic Morphology: Bacilli

Coccobacilli

Short, thick, oval-shaped rods Escherichia coli

Microscopic Morphology: Bacilli

Vibrio

Comma-shaped rods Vibrio cholerae

Microscopic Morphology: Spirals

Spirillum

A spiral whose long axis remains rigid when in motion Campylobacter jejuni

Microscopic Morphology: Spirals

Spirochete

A spiral whose long axis bends when in motion Borrelia species

Microscopic Morphology: Spirals

Spirochete

Treponema pallidum

Microscopic Morphology: SIZE


Expressed in micrometer (m) 1m is equals to 1/1000 of a mm or 1/25000 of an inch Cocci measure 0.42.0m Bacilli measure 0.24.0m in width by 0.5 20.0m in length Spirals measure 1.0 14.0 m in length