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Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Decoding Behavior to Improve Performance: Inventory for Work Attitude and Motivation (iWAM)

Motivational and Attitudinal Patterns

What we call Motivational and Attitudinal Patterns (MAPs) are often called Metaprograms in the realm of cognitive psychology. These patterns are unconscious filter/translators that are part of how we construct and confirm our model of the world. Since these patterns are a major determinate of what we perceive at any given time, they impact directly how we interact with ourselves, others, and the world around us. Although Motivational and Attitudinal Patterns (MAPs) are universally shared, the way we apply them varies from person-to-person and context-to-context.

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

How Does the iWAM Work?

The roots of the Inventory for Work Attitude and Motivation are in the field of cognitive psychology in the study of the relationship between language and behavior. Individuals store in memory and retrieve experience on the basis of language. Our stored experiences include both facts (information) and emotions (feelings). Early research in the field revealed that people who use certain kinds of language patterns tend to exhibit certain kinds of behavior patterns; that is, similar language manifests in similar behavior. There is a direct link between language and behavior in a contextsimilar language manifests in similar behavior!

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Language and Motivation

Words can incite physical and emotional reactions

Words and phrases serve as verbal triggers or hot buttons

If a hot button is activated by language or a situation, it can:

Motivate us to action (get us going) in the desired direction; Keep us from being motivated by something; or Motivate us in the opposite direction of the desired action.

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Importance of Motivation & Attitude

Motivational and Attitudinal Patterns are part of our behavioral habits that impact thinking, decision making, and behaving by helping us manage our experiences. Motivational and Attitudinal Patterns help us manage experiences by:

Filtering what goes on around us (Admit vs. Block) Translating the Admits into our sense of reality

Motivational and attitudinal patterns are very powerful influences on personality, emotions, competencies, and the resulting behavior from all of these factors. In the end, our behavior is what determines our performance. As a result of the connections and relationships, motivational and attitudinal patterns turn out to be a major force in predicting performance levels in given contexts. In spite of their importance, motivational and attitudinal patterns are relatively invisible to the person and off the radar of human resource and organization development specialists in North America.

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

The Visible and the Invisible

Visible Behavior 10%

Abilities & Competencies
The iWAM


Invisible Factors 90%
Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance 6

Basic Assumptions

All behavior is motivated. Motivation and attitude are not abilities. Abilities/Competencies determine whether you can do something; motivation and attitude influence whether you want to do it.

You are not likely to be able to perform an act that requires an ability you do not have, but you can behave in ways that are contradictory to your motivational and attitudinal patterns in a context if you choose to do soyou can override your predominant desire.
If you are in a situation that requires you to behave, for a long period of time, in ways that contradict what you want to do, it will consume more energy than if you were doing what you want to do and will be de-motivating.

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

MAPs and the Role of Context

Context = Frame of reference we put around a situation. We put different frames around different life situations and roles (e.g., job, recreation, family, play). The different frames or contexts may have an impact on our motivational and attitudinal patterns. As a result, we may be motivated to behave in different ways in different situations.

To understand someones behavior, we have to understand the context (framework) within which he or she is operating and the motivational and attitudinal patterns associated with that context.

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

MAPs and Performance

Performance is impacted by motivation and attitude. Certain jobs and roles require certain kinds of motivational and attitudinal patterns. Assuming you have the ability, the more closely your motivational and attitudinal patterns match the requirements of a role: (a) the more you are motivated to perform that role, and (b) the better you are likely to be in that role. In working with others, the extent to which you understand your MAPs in a context and how those MAPs match with or differ from others, the more effective you can be in having a successful relationship and in creating positive outcomes.

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

The Performance Formula

Motivation & X Attitudes Criteria
(Values, Goals, & Beliefs)

Abilities & = Competencies


The Performance Formula, supported by research, shows that MAPs, Criteria (that include our values, goals and beliefs), and Abilities/Competencies interact to create behavior that generates Results or Outcomes. The more you understand which factors influence performance in what ways, the more effective you will be in predicting and managing performance and results. MAPs are the key to understanding to what extent and how motivation and attitude drive performance.
Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance 10

The Performance Model

Culture of the Country Environment Organizational Culture
Motivation & Attitudes Values, Beliefs & Goals Abilities & Competencies

(Role/Job) Relationships Expectations Challenges Tasks

I n t e r p r e t

= My Reality

E v a l u a t e

= My Decision

A c t

O u t c o m e s


2008-2009 Institute for Work Attitude & Motivation



Performance Model Explanations

High-Level Influences on the Individual (The Milieu): A major force on an individual is the milieu in which the person lives including the country culture, environment (physical/economic/etc.) and the organizational culture in which he or she works. Personal Influences on the Individual (Background, Personal Characteristics, and Personality): Research indicates that factors such as family history and characteristics such as marital status as well as what we call personality all have some influence on an individuals behavior and performance. The group of factors is shown in the model, but not a core component of the model because there is no evidence in current research that any of these factors across a group have as much impact on an individual as those shown. Influence of the Setting on the Individual The Context: Context, in this case, refers to the individuals life situation or setting at the moment. It can be work, family, play, etc. Context has a significant impact on the first stage of the model. Unlike more stable characteristics like personality or intelligence, motivational and attitudinal patterns may shift with context. Patterns for high performers in one role may not be the same as those in another role. The same goes for an organization. High performers in a role in one organization may not have the same patterns as their counterparts in another organization. To understand fully ones performance, it is necessary to understand the context in which the person works. Motivational & Attitudinal Patterns: The first stage of the 3-stage performance process is the one in which we translate the experience around us into our personal definition of reality. The process involves filtering that experience such that some gets processed and other parts ignored and interpretation where we put our meaning around the experience. This is a powerful upstream contributor to much of the motivation that leads to performance. Criteria Values, Beliefs, Goals, etc.: In this stage, we evaluate reality make decisions and judgments about whether the experience we are having is important to us, aligns with our values, goals, and other criteria, or fit with our beliefs. This evaluation and decision process influences our actions or reactions to a given situation or experience. Taking Action: This is where we act on or respond to the situation we just evaluated. We always take action even if the action is only a thought. When we act, we choose from the storehouse of knowledge and skills we possess. The more knowledge and skills we possess, the more options we have for responding. Note, however, that at the action stage, our competencies and abilities are all downstream from our motivational and attitudinal patterns, criteria, and emotions. Emotions: Our emotions may play an important role in the overall process. Emotions can both impact and be impacted by our motivational and attitudinal patterns and our criteria. In addition, the field of emotional intelligence (EQ) demonstrates how our emotions can have a major impact how we access and take advantage of our abilities. Outcome (Performance): The outcome represents that effect of all that influenced us on the way to action. Each element of the Performance Model contributes to the resultyet, no single element is sufficient in and of itself to account entirely for the outcome. The key is to understand which variable or variables in the model account for what proportion of the performance in a given role in a given context (organization). Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Measuring Motivation and Attitude

The Inventory for Work Attitude and Motivation (iWAM) is a unique, online assessment tool that measures motivational and attitudinal patterns (MAPs) The iWAM consists of 40 questions, each of which has five response alternatives, and is reported in 48 scales The iWAM was developed in the United States, is used globally, and is available in multiple languages iWAM reports are applicable to individuals, two people, teams, and organizations iWAM has modeling tools for analyzing and predicting performance. The iWAM can be scheduled, completed, scored, and printed in less than an hour! iWAM Professionals can create a Custom Test Center to brand their assessments and reports Compared to other assessments, the iWAM has a wider range of applications to improve individual, team, or organizational performance!

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Examples of Motivational and Attitudinal Patterns the iWAM Measures

Proactive: Does the individual want to take initiative or make things happen? Goal Orientation: Does this person want and need goals in his/her work? Decisions: Does this person want to make her/his own decisions or get input? Task Orientation: Will he or she look for alternatives or prefer to follow procedures? World View: Does this person want to see the big picture or pay attention to detail?

Communication: Gives more attention to words (content) or non-verbal behavior?

Work Environment: Does she prefer to work alone or have lots of contact with people? Responsibility: Does he want sole responsibility or to be more of a team player? Time Orientation: Is the individuals attention on the past, present, and/or future? Convincer Data: What is the best way to provide information to convince this person? Rules: How much will this person want to follow the rules? To accept diversity? . . . and much more!

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

What makes the iWAM unique?

No other test measures motivational and attitudinal patterns (MAPs)

Powerful predictor: 40-60% as opposed to 15-30% or even less like other factors measured by other tests
Context specific/sensitive results more applicable in work context and business environment

A lot more information 48 categories/patterns measured as opposed to 4 or 8 (it does not put people in a box)
Report options (individual, paired comparison, team reports, etc.)

Provides interpretive reports and the influence language for MAPs

Comparison to a standard group, using relative percentages and absolute scores for personal analysis How do other people see us? How do the MAPs impact us?

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

iWAM Applications

Recruitment & Selection Training & Development Performance Management Team Development Conflict Resolution Coaching Leadership Development Succession Planning Organizational Culture Analysis Persuasive Communication Change Management Marketing

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Model of Excellence
"What differentiates top performers from their peers in our organization?"


"How can we improve the overall performance of a certain role in our organization?

Discover with iWAM what differentiates high performers from others in a role or organization; and code the results ideal profile in an electronic model, the iWAM Model of Excellence.

Match applicants iWAM results to Model to help selection decisions (Model scores and ranks people so you know who to interview first) Match average/low performers iWAM results to Model of Excellence to discover what to train and how to train for improved performance Identify what makes leadership successful and use results for leadership development and succession planning.

Models of Excellence can have a predictive power of 45-65% of a performance rating! Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance


Case Study Recruitment & Selection : Improving Hiring to Reduce Turnover

Organization used iWAM Model of Excellence to hire sales personnel and redesign their recruiting using iWAMs suggestions for motivational language.

100 people used to respond to job ads. Redesigned campaign attracted 300 candidates! Time needed to decide which candidates to invite for selection: reduced to 50%!

iWAM reduced staff turnover by more than 62%!

Return on Investment after 1 year: 1300%!!

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance

Case Study Managing Performance: Improving Performance in a Call Center

Call Center created iWAM Model of Excellence to benchmark what drives successful behavior in the position. The Model was used for:

Identifying high-potential applicants to the Call Center

Creating a training program that helped managers work with lower performers to behave in ways comparable to top performers
Help managers understand differences in team and its implications for managing individuals more effectively

Net result of the intervention was 33% increase in revenue from those who underwent training within the first 6 months following the intervention!
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Case Study Coaching: iWAM to Resolve Conflict and Help Manage People Effectively
Tom, the senior assistant to the Project manager, once motivated and productive, now is described as unenthusiastic, low morale, unable to be coached for high productivity; probably no longer capable of holding his position with the company as senior assistant.

Toms goals: to like the job again, become motivated, resolve conflicts iWAM consultant revealed problem: manager and assistant are motivated by completely different factors (in fact, opposites!) Coaching helped understand differences and adjust communication, leading to improved work relationship.

iWAM made it possible for manager to effectively motivate Tom again. Tom said his life had turned around, he is back to being enthusiastic and productive at work.
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Case Study Team Development: Turning Great Individuals into a Great Team
Talented leadership team in turmoil, working well in dyads, but when mixed, performance went down. They were unable to solve difficulties, the President needed help to improve teamwork and performance.

Every leader on the team filled out the iWAM Everyone received individual feedback and agreed to participate in a team session with an iWAM team profile Team session with consultant explaining what high and low scores in a pattern meant and how differences might play out in the team Team discussed their experiences and how the iWAM profiles contributed to their effectiveness and how they will use this knowledge to improve their performance in future

Team called iWAM very useful teambuilding tool as well as personal development exercise!
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Case Study Leadership Development: iWAM + Coaching Yield a Better Leadership Team
Global companys senior manager having trouble communicating and managing relationships with and between some of the leadership team members.

iWAM administered to all team members, individual feedback sessions held with key team members; iWAM Paired Comparison used to develop data for dialogue and contracting exercises between members; Senior manager and direct report with the help of consultant used paired comparison results to understand similarities and differences, sources of synergy and dysfunction.

Leaders admitted having discovered something very useful that was off the radar.
Consultant: The iWAM has become a central tool and approach to executive and leadership development as well as in the development of effective leadership teams. I wish there had been such an instrument available 20 years ago.
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For further information on the iWAM, its applications, or the Certification Program, please contact:

The Institute for Work Attitude & Motivation

2510 South Brentwood Boulevard Suite 204 St. Louis, Missouri 63144 Phone: +1-314-961-9676 Mobile: +1-314-603-5460 Fax: +1-314-961-9678

Mapping the New Landscape of Human Performance