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Telecommunications and Networks

PGDM TRIMESTER - I

Learning Objectives
Effective communications are essential to

organizational success

Define the term telecommunications and describe the components of a telecommunications system Identify two broad categories of communications media and their associated characteristics Identify several communications hardware devices and discuss their function

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Why Learn About Telecommunications and Networks?


Need to access data wherever it resides Fast, reliable communications to
Exchange messages Upload/download data and software Route business transactions Connect to remote databases Send output to printers

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An Overview Of Telecommunications
Telecommunications: electronic transmission of

signals for communications


Telephone, radio, and television Minimizes time and distance limitation Plays a special role in multinational organization

Telecommunication System: is a collection of

compatible hardware and software arranged to communicate information from one location to another.

Can transmit text, data, graphics, voice, documents or video

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An Overview Of Telecommunications

Elements of a Telecommunications System

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Telecommunication System

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Electronic signals: Analog and digital


Analog signals are continuous waves that carry

information by altering the amplitude and frequency of the waves.

For example, sound is analog and travels to our ears in the form of wavesthe greater the height (amplitude) of the waves, the louder the sound; the more closely packed the waves (higher frequency), the higher the pitch.

Radio, telephones, and recording equipment historically

transmitted and received analog signals, but they are rapidly changing to digital signals.

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Electronic signals: Analog and digital


Digital signals are discrete on-off pulses that

convey information in terms of 1s and 0s.

Digital signals have several advantages over analog signals. First, digital signals tend to be less affected by interference or noise.

Noise (e.g., static) can seriously alter the information carrying characteristics of analog signals, whereas it is generally easier, in spite of noise, to distinguish between an on and an off. Consequently, digital signals can be repeatedly strengthened over long distances, minimizing the effect of any noise. Second, because computer-based systems process digitally, digital communications among computers require no conversion from digital to analog to digital.

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Basic Communications Channel Characteristics


Communications can be synchronous or

asynchronous

Synchronous communications: receiver gets message instantaneously e.g. voice over phone Asynchronous communications: receiver gets message after some delay e.g. email

Communication channels can be classified as: Simplex channel: transmits data in only one direction Half-duplex channel: transmits data in either direction, but not simultaneously Full-duplex channel: permits data transmission in both directions at the same time
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Channel Bandwidth
Channel bandwidth: rate at which data is

exchanged over a communications channel

Usually measured in bits per second (bps)

Broadband communications:

telecommunications system in which a very high rate of data exchange is possible Narrowband communications: telecommunications system that supports a much lower rate of data exchange than broadband

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Communications Media
A telecommunication medium is a physical substance

through which electronic signals are transferred. Selection depends on:


Volume of information Speed Data privacy Type of user and others

The two major categories of media include: Conducted media (Guided or tangible) Wireless media (Intangible)

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Conducted Media
All forms of cabling are similar, in that they provide

a medium across which information can travel in the form of a physical signal, whether electrical or light pulses The primary cable types are:

Twisted-pair Coaxial cable Fiber-optic cable

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Conducted Media

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Twisted Pair Wire


One or more pairs of single conductor wires that have been

twisted around each other Twisting the wires helps to eliminate electromagnetic interference between the two wires

Inexpensive Easy to install and maintain Low bandwidth Subject to interference Low security

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Twisted Pair Wire (Categories)

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Coaxial Cable
A single wire wrapped in a foam insulation surrounded

by a braided metal shield, then covered in a plastic jacket. Cable comes in various thicknesses

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Coaxial Cable
Characteristics:

Was the predominant form of network cabling

Shielding: protective layer(s) wrapped around cable to protect it


from external interference. Therefore good in carrying analog signals with wide range of frequencies Less susceptible to interference and attenuation than twisted-pair, but more susceptible than fiber-optic Used

For long distance telephone transmission As a cabling within LAN As a connector between a computer terminal and a mainframe computer

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Fiber-Optic Cable
A thin glass cable approximately a little thicker

than a human hair surrounded by a plastic coating and packaged into an insulated cable

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Fiber-Optic Cable
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How it works?
A photo diode or laser generates pulses of light which

travel down the fiber optic cable and are received by a photo receptor Light source

LED: simple and inexpensive Laser: complex and costly, produce higher data transmission rates (100Gbps)

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber optic


Advantages

High bandwidth Immunity to electromagnetic interferences Less signal attenuation (transmit signal over longer distances) Low error rate Impossible to wiretap (High security) Light weight
Installation and maintenance of fiber-optic networks is more difficult and time-consuming than copper media installation Cable, Connectors and test equipment are considerably more expensive than their copper counterparts Unidirectional light propagation

Disadvantages

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Conducted Media (Summary)

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Guided Transmission Media Types

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Wireless Media
Communications signal broadcast over airwaves as a

form of electromagnetic radiation Radio, satellite transmissions, and infrared light are all different forms of electromagnetic waves that are used to transmit data Technically speaking in wireless transmissions, space is the medium

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Wireless Media

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Broadcast Radio

Omni-directional transmission Signals send over range of frequencies Radio broadcast


Shortwave, citizen band Ultrahigh frequency, very high frequency High definition television (HDTV) Digital Television Technology (DTV) Digital Radio

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Microwave
Transmit at high frequency (up to 500 GHz) Larger bandwidth Shorter wavelength Unidirectional transmission Use line-of-sight transmission Used for high-volume, long distance, point-to-point communication

Types Terrestrial microwave Satellite microwave

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Terrestrial Microwave Transmission


Land-based Applications: telephone companies and business to business transmissions

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Terrestrial Microwave Transmission


Advantages Transmits data at hundreds of millions of bits per second Maintenance will be less expensive in a long run than leasing a high speed telephone lines. Limitations: Requires line-of-sight transmission

Limit the transmission distance (Approximately 20-30 miles between towers) Signals will not pass through solid objects

Susceptible to environmental interferences

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Terrestrial Microwave Transmission

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Satellite Microwave Transmission


Similar to terrestrial microwave except the signal

travels from a ground station on earth to a satellite (as relay station) and back to another ground station

Achieved much greater distances Can also transmit signals from one satellite to another

Features Uplink, Downlink and transponders Propagation Delay

Satellites can be classified by how far out into orbit

each one is (LEO, MEO, GEO, and HEO)


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Satellite Microwave Transmission

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Satellite Microwave Transmission

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Satellite Microwave Transmission


LEO (Low-Earth-Orbit) 100 to 1000 miles out

Used for wireless e-mail, special mobile telephones, pagers, spying, remote sensing and videoconferencing

MEO (Middle-Earth-Orbit) 1000 to 3000 miles

Used for GPS (global positioning systems) and government


Always positioned over the same point on earth (and always over the equator) Used for weather, television, meteorology, government operations Advantages: Provide high capacity for delivering high speed, high quantity bulk transmissions that can cover up to onethird of the surface of the earth.

GEO (Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit) 22,300 miles

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Satellite Microwave Transmission


HEO (Highly Elliptical Earth orbit) satellite

follows an elliptical orbit

Used by the military for spying and by scientific organizations for photographing celestial bodies

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Satellite Microwave Transmission


VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal): is a two way

satellite ground station with a small dish antenna


Used in retail chain to support POS transactions Used by banks (credit cards) Used to receive TV and send and receive computer communications

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Radio
Operates in 30Hz to 300Hz

Radio waves can travel through many obstruction.

Can also be used to send and receive data Wireless technologies based on radio transmission

RFID chips Wi-Fi Networks Bluetooth Satellite radio

Cellular phones also operate using radio waves to provide two-way

communication

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Cellular Radio
Wireless telephone service, also

called mobile telephone, cell phone, and PCS To support multiple users in a metropolitan area (market), the market is broken into cells Each cell has its own transmission tower and set of assignable channels Used for voice and data

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How Cellular Radio works?

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Infrared Transmission
Transmissions that use a focused ray of light in the infrared

frequency range( >300GHz) that cannot be seen Requires line-of-sight transmission Can transmit up to one and half mile. Data rate : up to 16 Mbps Uses

in remote controls LANs use this for wireless transmission Used for device-to-device transfers, such as PDA to computer IrDA ports used with printers, keyboards, mouse

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Wireless Media Types

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Media Selection Criteria


Cost Speed Distance and expandability

Environment
Security

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Cost
Different types of costs Initial cost what does a particular type of medium cost to purchase?
Include cable cost, supporting devices (connectors, terminators etc.) Installation cost

Maintenance / support cost

ROI (return on investment) if one medium is

cheaper to purchase and install but is not cost effective, where are the savings?

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Speed
Two different forms of speed: Propagation speed the time to send the first bit across the medium
This speed depends upon the medium Airwaves and fiber are speed of light Copper wire is two thirds the speed of light With satellite, delay of 0.25 to 0.75 seconds

Data transfer speed the time to transmit the rest of the bits in the message

This speed is measured in bits per second

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Scalability
Certain media lend themselves more easily to

expansion Dont forget right-of-way issue

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Environment
Many types of environments are hazardous to certain

media

Industrial environment Electromagnetic noise and interference Sunspots Bad weather

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Security
If data must be secure during transmission, it is

important that the medium not be easy to tap.


Use encryption Spread spectrum technology

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Telecommunications Hardware
Typical telephone line only accommodates an analog

signal (continuous, curving signal) Computers generate a digital signal representing bits Modem: device that translates data from digital to analog and analog to digital

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Telecommunications Hardware

How a Modem Works


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Telecommunications Hardware (continued)


Multiplexer: device that encodes data from two or

more data sources onto a single communications channel

Reduces number of communications channels needed Lowers telecommunications costs

Front-end processors: special-purpose

computers that manage communications to and from computer system serving hundreds or even thousands of users

Use polling

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Summary
Telecommunications: electronic transmission of

signals for communications, by such means as telephone, radio, and television Guided transmission media types: twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and broadband over power lines Wireless transmission types: microwave, radio, and infrared

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