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Dr. Harminder Singh

Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Includes:
skin-care creams, lipsticks, powders, perfumes, deodorants nail polish, eye and facial makeup, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, baby products, bath oils,
Prepared By: Dr. Harminder Singh

Cosmetics are available in several forms for various uses. Most common are : Emulsions, suspensions and sticks. Ingredients used are : surfactants, water, emulsifier, active ingredients, thickener, color, fragrance and preservatives.

The basics of most cosmetics are emulsions.

What is a Emulsion?
A emulsion is a meta stable disperse system of two liquids, which are not soluble in each other.
The emulsions can be divided up into two groups: 1.Oil in water (O/W) emulsions and 2. Water in Oil (W/O) emulsions.

Prepared By: Dr. Harminder Singh

O/W emulsion

By dispersion of oil into water the oil drops are the inner, dispersed phase. Water is the outer, continuous phase. Cosmetic removable by water
oil drop

water phase
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W/O Emulsion


By dispersion of water into oil the water drops are the inner, dispersed phase. Oil is the outer, continuous phase. Cosmetic water resistant


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These are used to solve the problems from dry skin to wrinkles to counteract the effects of ageing. Lactic acid swells and soften the top layer of the skin. Also it has some effects in reducing the fine lines and wrinkles. Ceramide-3 increases the content within the skin and make it look younger. Oils Clean and soften the skin. E.g. Natural wool wax and lanolin.

a topical preparation usually for application to the skin
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Cold creams Oil based cleaners. These are generally semisolid emulsions with water. Uses Keep the skin moist and soft.
Vanishing creams oil in water emulsions. Penetrate the skin without leaving an oily surface film. Soluble in water and made from fatty acids e.g stearic acid, oleic acid. Propylene, glycol, glycerine, sorbitol incorporated with water phase act to retard drying out of the creams.

Foundation creams These are oil soluble dyes to match the skin color. Bleaching creams Active ingredients of ammoniated mercury, sodium perborate. Emollient creams soften the skin.


Skin care products for kids usually contain natural antioxidants , moisturizers ( sweet almond oil), aloe and milk protein .

Deodrants and Antiperspirants

Body odour is produced by the breakdown of the organic fractions of sweat by the natural skin bacteria. Deodrants- They merely mask the odour of sweat rather than seeking to prevent its formaton. Available in the form of aerolsols, sticks and gels.

Deodrants work by killing the bacteria and masking the unpleasant odour with something more fragrant

Antiperspirants serve to suppress sweating. They usually contain anti bacterial agents to hinder growth of odour producing microorganisms. The contain aluminium salts in combination with zirconium salts e.g. aluminium chlorohydrate, aluminium zirconium chlorohydrate etc

Nail Cosmetics
Nail polishes These consists of cellulose nitrate, a plasticizer, an adhesive resin, dye and a mixture of solvents.

Nail polish removers usually consists of acetone and ethyl acetate.

Mouth Cosmetics

Also called oral cosmetics. Includes toothpastes and the substances like mouth washers and sprays that clean the teeth and gums.

Promote a good standard of oral hygiene, which is essential part of our civilization. Dentrifices - Dentifrices are agents used along with a toothbrush to clean and polish natural teeth. They are supplied in paste, powder, gel or liquid form. Most common of them is toothpaste.
Toothpaste - Toothpaste is a dentifrice used in conjunction with a toothbrush to help maintain oral hygiene.

Common ingredients Polishing agents e.g. dicalcium phosphate dihydrate.

Foaming agent e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate.

Humectant Glycerine and sorbitol. Flavour spearmint, peppermint.

UsesProtect against cavities Freshens the breath. Reduce tooth senstivity. Control oral infections.

Sun Protection
Problems faced: Sun burns Skin cancer Formation of Wrinkles Ageing.

Skin care actives fall in two categoriesInorganic sun blockers These include zinc oxide or titanium dioxide. Organic sun absorbers These includes benzophenones and octyl methoxycinnamate. These days both are used in combination.

Perfumes and Fragrances

Perfumes and Fragrances are all parts of our daily lives. Shampoos, soaps, detergents and other products that we use have fragrances associated with them.

Nose can detect seven primary odours : Camphorous Musky Floral Pepperminty. Etheral Pungent. Putrid

Most of the fragrances originate from plants. Parts of plants responsible are Flower Seeds (Cardamom) Roots (angelica) Bark ( Cinnamon) Peels (Orange).

The fragrances are extracted from the flowers in the form of essential oils. These oils are dissolved in a solvent (ethyl alcohol). The percentage of essential oils are Perfume (20-30%) Cologne ( 8-15%) Aftershave (1-3%)

Hair Care
Different products used are: Shampoos Conditioners Styling products Hair dyes

Hair cleansing
Shampoos are liquid detergents and are further modified by additives to give lustre and softness to hair. These are designed to clean the hair, which generally equates to removing grease because the particulate dirt tends to adhere to the grease rather than the hair itself.

Major ingredients are : A mixture of Surfactants ethoxylate and an amphoteric surfactant and usually an alkanoamide as well. Surfactants are responsible for removing the dirt by lowering the surface tension. They are also responsible for the formation of foam. Some of the foaming agents may also be added e.g Sodium laryl sulphate. Then, Coconut fatty acid may be added which prevent the hair from becoming dry.

Hair conditioning
The second stage in hair care is conditioning. Purpose of hair conditioner - To make the hair soft and shiny and easier to comb. Earlier it was cationic surfactants like such as stearalkonium chloride was used but these days it is silicones and proteins often in combination with cationic surfactants. Pro-vitamin B5 is most common.

Hair color
Hair color is modified either by Bleaching with Hydrogen peroxide Colored with hair dyes. Hair dyes are alkaline solution paraphenylene diammine dyes. These solutions are mixed with Hydrogen peroxide before being applied to the hair. After the color develops the hair are washed away. Hair darkners are combination of Pb, Ag and Cu salts with developing solutions.

Under the influence of light and air, they develop insoluble oxides and sulphides which give color to the hair. Different shades could be developed by varying the conc. and and combination of the metal salts. Hair color remover Calcium thioglycolate.

Hair Waving
It is the process of changing the shape of the hair. Two types: Heat waving- Preparations contain sodium or potassium sulphite with monoethanolamine, potassium carbonate, ammonium carbonate, sodium borate and water. These solutions are applied at a temp. of 90-104oC followed by rinsing with neutralizer which is a dil. Acid.

Cold waving solution contain ammonium thioglycolate.

It is a solution of a polymer in a very volatile solvent. Spraying deposits a stiff layer of the polymer on the hair after the solvents evaporates. Polymers used are polyvinylpyrrolidine, vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride etc.

Shaving Creams
Contain water, palmitic acid , stearyl alcohol, mineral oil, imidazolidinyl urea, methylparaben, propylparaben and fragrance.

Color cosmetics
Most color cosmetics are based on talc whether face powder, eye shadow or blusher. Lipsticks : It consists of a solid waxy material mixed with non volatile oil so that it can spread easily and also remain stiff in the tube. Dyes used are insoluble in water so that the color last longer. Soluble dyes are converted into insoluble particles by treatment with metal oxides.

Eosin is commonly used red dye in lipsticks.

Esters of fatty acids are added to ensure the lipstick has proper texture, stickness and suitable melting point. Natural lipsticks These contain stain dyes but no pigments and on application develops a pink color. Oil soluble dyes when used without pigment give black lipsticks which gives a dark red color. Mood lipsticks These changes color with diet, stress, physical activity as these factors affect the

Available in liquid, cream, paste and powder form. Liquid rouge is formulated as dispersion or a fluid emulsion containing slow drying or non drying ingredients like glycerine , propylene glycol or sorbitol. Cream rouges may be emulsified cream with a texture such that an adequate amount can be picked by a finger and spread smoothly over the skin. Solid rouge may be of oil in water or water in oil type.