VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:
CHAPTER
13
Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Phillip J. Cornwell Lecture Notes:
Kinetics of Particles:
Energy and Momentum Methods
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
California Polytechnic State University
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Contents
Introduction Work of a Force
Principle of Work & Energy
Applications of the Principle of Work & Energy
Power and Efficiency
Sample Problem 13.1
Sample Problem 13.2 Sample Problem 13.3 Sample Problem 13.4
Sample Problem 13.5
Potential Energy Conservative Forces Conservation of Energy
Motion Under a Conservative Central Force
Sample Problem 13.6 Sample Problem 13.7 Sample Problem 13.9 Principle of Impulse and Momentum Impulsive Motion Sample Problem 13.10 Sample Problem 13.11 Sample Problem 13.12 Impact Direct Central Impact Oblique Central Impact
Problems Involving Energy and
Momentum Sample Problem 13.14 Sample Problem 13.15
Sample Problems 13.16
Sample Problem 13.17
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Energy and Momentum Methods
The pogo stick allows the boy to change between kinetic energy, potential energy from
gravity, and potential energy
in the spring.
Accidents are often analyzed
by using momentum methods.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Introduction
• Previously, problems dealing with the motion of particles were solved through the fundamental equation of motion,
F ma.
• The current chapter introduces two additional methods of analysis.
• Method of work and energy: directly relates force, mass, velocity and displacement.
• Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, mass, velocity, and time.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Introduction
Approaches to Kinetics Problems
Forces and
Accelerations
Newton’s Second
Law (last chapter)
_{}_{F} maG
Velocities and
Displacements
WorkEnergy
T U
1
1
2
T
2
Velocities and
Momentum
mv
t
2
F dt mv
1
2
t
1
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Work of a Force
• Differential vector _{d}_{r} is the particle displacement.
• Work of the force is
dU
F
dr
F ds
F dx
cos
F
dy
F dz
• Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and sign but not direction.
• Dimensions of work are _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} _{} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{.} Units are
1 J joule 1 N1 m
1ft lb 1.356
J
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Work of a Force
What is the work of a constant force in rectilinear motion?
a)
U
F
x
1
2
U
b)
F cos
x
1
2
c)
U
F sin
x
1
2
0
1
2
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Work of a Force
• Work of the force of gravity,
• Work of the weight is equal to product of weight W and vertical displacement y.
• In the figure above, when is the work done by the weight positive?
a) Moving from y _{1} to y _{2}
b) Moving from y 2 to y 1
c) Never
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Work of a Force
• Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is proportional to deflection,
kx
F k spring constant N/m or lb/in.
• Work of the force exerted by spring,
dU
F dx
kx dx
U
kx dx
kx
kx
• Work of the force exerted by spring is positive when x _{2} < x _{1} , i.e., when the spring is returning to its undeformed position.
• Work of the force exerted by the spring is equal to negative of area under curve of F plotted against x,
U
1
2
1
2
F
1
F
2
x
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Work of a Force
As the block moves from A _{0} to A _{1} , is the work positive or negative?
Positive
Displacement is in the opposite direction of the force
As the block moves from A _{2} to A _{o} , is the work positive or negative?
Negative
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Work of a Force
Work of a gravitational force (assume particle M occupies fixed position O while particle m follows path shown),
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Does the normal force do work as the block slides from B to A?
YES
Does the weight do work as
the block slides from B to A?
NO
Positive or Negative work?
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Energy
• Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F
dv
F
ma
m
t
t
dt
dv ds
dv
m
mv
ds dt
ds
F
ds
mv dv
t
• Integrating from A 1 to A 2 ,
s
v
2
2
1
2
1
F ds
m
v dv
mv
mv
t
2
2
2
s
v
1
1
•
The work of the force
F
is equal to the change in
kinetic energy of the particle. • Units of work and kinetic energy are the same:
T
1
2
2
mv
kg
2
kg
m m
s
2
N
m
J
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy
from rest at position A _{1} .
Determine the velocity of the pendulum bob at A _{2} using work & kinetic energy.
acts normal to path and does no
• Velocity is found without determining expression for acceleration and integrating.
• All quantities are scalars and can be added directly.
• Forces which do no work are eliminated from the problem.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Power and Efficiency
•
rate at which work is done.
• Dimensions of power are work/time or force*velocity. Units for power are
•
1 W (watt)

1

J


1 N


or


550

ft


lb

746 W


s

s

s








Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.1
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.
• Determine the distance required for the work to equal the kinetic energy change.
An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a 5 ^{o} incline at a speed of 60 mi/h when the brakes are applied causing a constant total breaking force of 1500 lb.
Determine the distance traveled by the
automobile as it comes to a stop.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.1
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.
v
5280 ft
60
mi
h
h
3600 s
88ft s
T
4000 32.288
v
0
T
2
0
• Determine the distance required for the work to
equal the kinetic energy change.
U
1500 lb
x
4000 lb
sin 5
x
1
2
1151lb
x
T
U
T
1
1
2
2
481000 ft lb
1151lb x
0
x 418 ft
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.2
Two blocks are joined by an inextensible cable as shown. If the system is released
from rest, determine the velocity of block
A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that the coefficient of friction between block A and the plane is m _{k} = 0.25 and that the pulley is weightless and frictionless.
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of work and energy separately to blocks A and B.
• When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel.
Solve for the velocity.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.2
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of work and energy separately to blocks A and B.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.2
• When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity.
F
C
2m
490
N
2m
1
2
200 kg v
2
F
c
2m
2940
N
2m
1
2
300 kg v
2
2940 N
2m
490
N
2m
1
2
200 kg
300 kg v
2
4900 J
1
2
500 kg v
2
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.3
A spring is used to stop a 60 kg package which is sliding on a horizontal surface. The spring has a constant k = 20 kN/m
and is held by cables so that it is initially
compressed 120 mm. The package has a velocity of 2.5 m/s in the position shown and the maximum deflection of the spring is 40 mm.
SOLUTION:
•
Apply the principle of work and energy between the initial position and the point at which the spring is fully compressed and the velocity is zero. The only unknown in the relation is the
friction coefficient.
• Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound of the package. The only unknown in the relation is the velocity at the final position.
Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and surface and (b) the velocity of the package as it passes again through the position shown.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.3
SOLUTION:
•
Apply principle of work and energy between initial
position and the point at which spring is fully compressed.
T
1
1
2
mv
2
1

1 2 60kg2.5m s

2 187.5J
T
2
0
U
1
2
f
m
k
W x
m
k
60kg 9.81m s
0.640m
377 J
m
k
U
1
2
U
1
2
f
U
1
2
e
377J m
k
112J
T
1
U
1
2
T
2
:
187.5J377 J
m
k
112J
0
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.3
•
Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound of the package.
T
2
0
T
3
1
2
mv
2
3
1
2
60kg v
2
3
U
2
3
U
36.5J
2
3
f
U
2
3
e
377 J
m
k
112J
T
2
U
2
3
T
3
:
0
36.5J
1
2
60kg v
2
3
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
The problem deals with a change in position and different velocities, so use workenergy.
• Draw FBD of the box to help us determine the forces that do work.
Packages are thrown down an incline at A with a velocity of 1 m/s. The packages slide along the surface ABC to a conveyor belt which moves with a
velocity of 2 m/s. Knowing that m _{k} = 0.25 between the packages and the surface ABC, determine the distance d if the packages are to arrive at C with a velocity of 2 m/s.
• Determine the work done between points A and C as a function of d.
• Find the kinetic energy at points A and C.
• Use the workenergy relationship and solve for d.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
Given: v _{A} = 1 m/s,
v _{C} = 2 m/s, m _{k} = 0.25
Find: distance d
Will use:
T
A
U
A
B
U
B
C
T
C
Draw the FBD of the
block at points A and C
Determine work done A → B
Determine work done B → C
N
mg
x
7 m
F
m
mg
U
m
mg x
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Determine kinetic energy at A and at C
T
A
2
mv
A
v
1m/s
T
C
1
2
2
mv
C
and
v
C
2 m/s
Substitute values into
T
A
U
A
B
U
B
C
1
2
2
mv
A
mg d
(sin30
m
k
cos30 )
m mg x
k
BC
1
2
2
mv
0
Divide by m and solve for d
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
The potential energy stored at the top of the roller coaster is transferred to kinetic energy as the cars descend.
The

elastic
potential

energy

stored in the trampoline is

transferred to
kinetic

energy

and

gravitational

potential

energy as the girl flies upwards.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Potential Energy
• Work of the force of gravity W,
U
W y
W y
1
2
1
2
• Work is independent of path followed; depends
only on the initial and final values of Wy.
V
Wy
g
potential energy of the body with respect
to force of gravity.
U
V
V
1
2
g
1
g
2
• Choice of datum from which the elevation y is measured is arbitrary.
• Units of work and potential energy are the same:
Wy Nm J
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Potential Energy
•
Previous expression for potential energy of a body with respect to gravity is only valid when the weight of the body can be assumed constant.
• For a space vehicle, the variation of the force of gravity with distance from the center of the earth should be considered.
• Work of a gravitational force,
U
1
2
GMm
GMm
r
2
• Potential energy V _{g} when the variation in the force of gravity can not be neglected,
V g
GMm
WR
2
r
r
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Potential Energy
• Work of the force exerted by a spring depends only on the initial and final deflections of the spring,
U
1
2
1
2
2 2
1
kx
2
kx
• The potential energy of the body with respect to the elastic force,
1
2
V
kx
e
2
U
V
V
1
2
e
1
e
2
• Note that the preceding expression for V e is
valid only if the deflection of the spring is
measured from its undeformed position.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Conservative Forces
• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the
work of the force is independent of the path
followed by its point of application.
U
V
x , y ,z
V x
, y
,z
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
Such forces are described as conservative forces.
• For any conservative force applied on a closed path,
F dr 0
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Conservation of Energy
• Work of a conservative force,
U
1
2
V V
1
2
• Concept of work and energy,
U
1
2
T
2
T
1
• Follows that
T
1
V
1
T
2
V
2
E
T
V
constant
• When a particle moves under the action of conservative forces, the total mechanical
energy is constant.
• Friction forces are not conservative. Total mechanical energy of a system involving
friction decreases.
• Mechanical energy is dissipated by friction into thermal energy. Total energy is constant.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion Under a Conservative Central Force
• When a particle moves under a conservative central force, both the principle of conservation of angular momentum
r mv
0
0
sin
0
rmv
sin
and the principle of conservation of energy
may be applied.
• Given r, the equations may be solved for v and j.
• At minimum and maximum r, j 90 ^{o} . Given the launch conditions, the equations may be solved for
^{r} min ^{,} ^{r} max ^{,} ^{v} min ^{,} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{v} max ^{.}
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.9
A satellite is launched in a direction parallel to the surface of the earth with a velocity of 36900 km/h from an altitude of 500 km.
Determine (a) the maximum altitude reached by the satellite, and (b) the maximum allowable error in the direction of launching if the satellite is to come no closer than 200 km to the surface of the earth
SOLUTION:
• For motion under a conservative central force, the principles of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum may be applied simultaneously.
• Apply the principles to the points of minimum and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.
• Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit insertion angle error.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.9
•
Apply the principles of conservation of energy and
conservation of angular momentum to the points of minimum and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.
Conservation of energy:
V
A
T
A
V
A
1
2
mv
2
0
GMm
r
0
1
2
mv
2
1
GMm
Conservation of angular momentum:
r
r mv
r mv
v
v
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
r
1
Combining,
2
r
GM
r
r
1
2
0
0
0
v
1
1
1
0
2
2
r
r
r
r
0
1
1
1
r
6370 km
500 km
6870 km
0
6
v
36900 km h
10.25
10
m s
0
2
2
6
GM
gR
9.81m s
6.37
10
r
60.4
10
6
m
60400 km
1
r v
0
2
0
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.9
•
Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point
of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit
insertion angle error. Conservation of energy:
T
0
V
0
V
A
1
2
mv
2
0
GMm
r
0
1
2
mv
2
max
GMm
r
min
Conservation of angular momentum:
r mv
0
0
sin
0
r
min
mv
max
v
max
v
0
sin
0
r
0
r
min
Combining and solving for sin j _{0} ,
sin
0
0.9801
j
0
90
11.5
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.6
A 20 lb collar slides without friction along a vertical rod as shown. The spring attached to the collar has an
undeflected length of 4 in. and a
constant of 3 lb/in.
SOLUTION:
•

Apply the principle of conservation of energy between positions 1 and 2.

•

The elastic and gravitational potential energies at 1 and 2 are evaluated from the given information. The initial kinetic energy is zero.

• Solve for the kinetic energy and velocity at 2.
If the collar is released from rest at position 1, determine its velocity after
it has moved 6 in. to position 2.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.6
SOLUTION:
•
Apply the principle of conservation of energy between positions 1 and 2.
Position 1:
kx
3lb in.
8 in.
4 in.
24in. lb
V
V
24in. lb
0
2ft
lb
Position 2:
T
0
Conservation of Energy:
T
1
V
1
T
2
V
2
2 ft
lb
0.311
v
2
2
5.5 ft
lb
v
2
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
A section of track for a roller coaster consists of two circular arcs AB and CD joined by a straight portion BC. The radius of CD is 240 ft. The car and its occupants, of total weight 560 lb, reach Point A with practically no velocity and then drop freely along the track. Determine the normal force exerted by the track on the car at point D. Neglect air resistance and rolling resistance.
© 2013 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
SOLUTION:
• This is two part problem – you will need to find the velocity of the car using workenergy, and
then use Newton’s second law
to find the normal force.
• Draw a diagram with the car at points A and D, and define your datum. Use conservation of energy to solve for v _{D}
• Draw FBD and KD of the car at point D, and determine the
normal force using Newton’s
second law.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
Given: v _{A} = 0 ft/s, r _{C}_{D} = 240 ft, W=560 lbs
Find: N _{D}
Define your datum, sketch the situation at points of interest
Datum
Use conservation of energy to find v _{D}
Find
T _{A}
Find V _{A} Find T _{D}
Find V _{D}
v
A
0
T
A
0
Wy
A
(560 lb)(90
60)=84,000 ft lbs
T
D
mv
1
560
2
32.2
v
2
D
8.6957
v
2
D
y
D
D
0
T
A
V
A
T
D
V
D
Solve for v _{D}
8.6957
v
D
v
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Draw FBD and KD at point D
Use Newton’s second law in the normal direction
F
n
ma
n
N
D
W
m
v
2
D
R
N
D
560
560
98.285
2
32.2
240
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Impulsive Motion
The thrust of a rocket acts over a specific time period
to
give
the
momentum.
rocket
linear
The impulse applied to the railcar
by the wall brings its momentum to zero. Crash tests are often performed to help improve safety in different vehicles.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
• From Newton’s second law,
• Dimensions of the impulse of a force are force*time.
F
d
dt
mv
mv
linear momentum
Fdt
d
mv
Fdt
mv
mv
Fdt
Imp
impulse of the force
F
• Units for the impulse of a force are
N
s
kg m s
kg
m s
mv
Imp
mv
• The final momentum of the particle can be obtained by adding vectorially its initial momentum and the impulse of the force during the time interval.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Impulsive Motion
• Force acting on a particle during a very short time interval that is large enough to cause a significant change in momentum is called an impulsive force.
• When impulsive forces act on a particle,
mv
1
F
t
mv
2
• When a baseball is struck by a bat, contact occurs over a short time interval but force is large enough to change sense of ball motion.
• Nonimpulsive forces are forces for which
Ft
is small and therefore, may be
neglected – an example of this is the weight
of the baseball.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.10
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. The impulse is equal to the product of the constant forces and the time interval.
An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a 5 ^{o} incline at a speed of 60 mi/h when the brakes are applied, causing a constant total braking force of
1500 lb.
Determine the time required for the automobile to come to a stop.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.10
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum.
mv
1
Imp
1
2
mv
2
Taking components parallel to the
incline,
mv
W
sin 5
t
Ft
0
1
4000
88ft s
4000 sin 5
t
1500
t
32.2
0
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.11
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in terms of horizontal and vertical component equations.
A 4 oz baseball is pitched with a velocity of 80 ft/s. After the ball is hit by the bat, it has a velocity of 120 ft/s in the direction shown. If the bat and ball are in contact for 0.015 s, determine the average impulsive force exerted on the ball during the impact.
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 13.11
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