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Tenth Edition
Tenth Edition

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

CHAPTER

13

DYNAMICS
DYNAMICS
Tenth Edition VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS: CHAPTER 13 DYNAMICS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Phillip J. Cornwell Lecture Notes:

Tenth Edition VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS: CHAPTER 13 DYNAMICS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Tenth Edition VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS: CHAPTER 13 DYNAMICS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Brian P. Self
Brian P. Self

Kinetics of Particles:

Energy and Momentum Methods

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

California Polytechnic State University
California Polytechnic State University

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Contents

Introduction Work of a Force

Principle of Work & Energy

Applications of the Principle of Work & Energy

Power and Efficiency

Sample Problem 13.1

Sample Problem 13.2 Sample Problem 13.3 Sample Problem 13.4

Sample Problem 13.5

Potential Energy Conservative Forces Conservation of Energy

Motion Under a Conservative Central Force

Sample Problem 13.6 Sample Problem 13.7 Sample Problem 13.9 Principle of Impulse and Momentum Impulsive Motion Sample Problem 13.10 Sample Problem 13.11 Sample Problem 13.12 Impact Direct Central Impact Oblique Central Impact

Problems Involving Energy and

Momentum Sample Problem 13.14 Sample Problem 13.15

Sample Problems 13.16

Sample Problem 13.17

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 - 2

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Energy and Momentum Methods

The pogo stick allows the boy to change between kinetic energy, potential energy from

gravity, and potential energy

in the spring.

Accidents are often analyzed

by using momentum methods.

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Energy and Momentum Methods The pogo stick allows the

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Introduction

Previously, problems dealing with the motion of particles were solved through the fundamental equation of motion,

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Introduction • Previously, problems dealing with the motion of

F ma.

The current chapter introduces two additional methods of analysis.

Method of work and energy: directly relates force, mass, velocity and displacement.

Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, mass, velocity, and time.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Introduction

Approaches to Kinetics Problems

Forces and

Accelerations

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Introduction Approaches to Kinetics Problems Forces and Accelerations Newton’s

Newton’s Second

Law (last chapter)

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Introduction Approaches to Kinetics Problems Forces and Accelerations Newton’s

F maG

Velocities and

Displacements

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Introduction Approaches to Kinetics Problems Forces and Accelerations Newton’s

Work-Energy

T U

1

1

2

T

2

Velocities and

Time Impulse-
Time
Impulse-

Momentum

mv   t 2 F dt  mv 1 2 t 1
mv
 t
2
F dt  mv
1
2
t
1

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Work of a Force

Differential vector dr is the particle displacement.

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force • Differential vector is the

Work of the force is

dU

F

dr

F ds

F dx

x

cos

F

y

dy

F dz

z

Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and sign but not direction.

Dimensions of work are length force. Units are

1 J joule1 N1 m

1ft lb 1.356

J

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Work of a Force

What is the work of a constant force in rectilinear motion?

a) U  F  x 1  2 U   b) F cos 
a)
U
F
x
1
2
U
b)
F cos
x
1
2
c)
U
F sin
x
1
2
 0
1
2
  • d) U

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Work of a Force

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force • Work of the force

Work of the force of gravity,

dU

F dx

x

F

y

dy

F dz

z

W dy

U

1

2

 

y

2

W dy

y

1

 

W

y

2

y

1

 

W

y

Work of the weight is equal to product of weight W and vertical displacement y.

In the figure above, when is the work done by the weight positive?

a) Moving from y 1 to y 2

b) Moving from y 2 to y 1
b) Moving from y 2 to y 1

c) Never

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Work of a Force

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force • Magnitude of the force
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force • Magnitude of the force

Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is proportional to deflection,

kx

F k spring constant N/m or lb/in.

Work of the force exerted by spring,

dU

 

F dx

 

kx dx

U

1

2

 

x

2

kx dx

  • x 1

1

2

kx

2

1

1

2

kx

2

2

Work of the force exerted by spring is positive when x 2 < x 1 , i.e., when the spring is returning to its undeformed position.

Work of the force exerted by the spring is equal to negative of area under curve of F plotted against x,

U

1

2

 

1

2

F

1

F

2

x

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Work of a Force

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force As the block moves from
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force As the block moves from

As the block moves from A 0 to A 1 , is the work positive or negative?

Positive

Negative
Negative

Displacement is in the opposite direction of the force

As the block moves from A 2 to A o , is the work positive or negative?

Positive
Positive

Negative

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Work of a Force

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Work of a Force Work of a gravitational force

Work of a gravitational force (assume particle M occupies fixed position O while particle m follows path shown),

dU

 

Fdr

 

G

Mm

r

2

dr

U

1

2

 

r

2

G

r

1

Mm

r

2

dr

G

Mm

G

Mm

r

2

r 1
r
1

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Does the normal force do work as the block slides from B to A?

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Does the normal force do work as the block
NO
NO

YES

Does the weight do work as

the block slides from B to A?

YES
YES

NO

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Does the normal force do work as the block

Positive or Negative work?

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Energy

Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F

dv F  ma  m t t dt dv ds dv  m  mv
dv
F
ma
m
t
t
dt
dv ds
dv
m
 mv
ds dt
ds
F
ds
mv dv
t
• Integrating from A 1 to A 2 ,
s
v
2
2
1
2
1
F ds
m
v dv
mv
mv
t
2
2
2
s
v
1
1

2

1

U

1

2

T

2

T 1
T
1

T

1

2

mv

  • 2 kinetic energy

The work of the force

F

is equal to the change in

kinetic energy of the particle. Units of work and kinetic energy are the same:

T

1

2

2

mv

kg

 m    s  
 m 
  s  

2

   kg

m   m

s

2

N

m

J

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

• The bob is released
The
bob
is
released

from rest at position A 1 .

Determine the velocity of the pendulum bob at A 2 using work & kinetic energy.

 

Force

P

work.

 

T

1

acts normal to path and does no

U

1

2

0

Wl

v

  • 2

T 2 1 W 2 v 2 2 g 2 gl
T
2
1 W
2
v
2
2
g
2
gl

Velocity is found without determining expression for acceleration and integrating.

All quantities are scalars and can be added directly.

Forces which do no work are eliminated from the problem.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Power and Efficiency

Power

rate at which work is done.

dU

dt

F

dr

dt

F

v

Dimensions of power are work/time or force*velocity. Units for power are

1 W (watt)

1

J

1 N

  • m 1 hp

or

550

ft

lb

746 W

 

s

s

s

efficiency output work

 

input work power output

 

power input

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.1

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.1 SOLUTION: • Evaluate the change in

SOLUTION:

Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.

Determine the distance required for the work to equal the kinetic energy change.

An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a 5 o incline at a speed of 60 mi/h when the brakes are applied causing a constant total breaking force of 1500 lb.

Determine the distance traveled by the

automobile as it comes to a stop.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.1

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.1 SOLUTION: • Evaluate the change in

SOLUTION:

Evaluate the change in kinetic energy.

v

  • 1

5280 ft
60

mi

h

 

 

 

 

 

  • mi  

h

3600 s

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.1 SOLUTION: • Evaluate the change in

88ft s

T

1

  • 1 mv
    2

2

1

1

2

4000 32.288

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.1 SOLUTION: • Evaluate the change in
  • 2 481000 ft lb

v

  • 2

0

T

2

0

• Determine the distance required for the work to equal the kinetic energy change. U 
• Determine the distance required for the work to
equal the kinetic energy change.
U
1500 lb
x
4000 lb

sin 5
x
1
2
  1151lb
x
T
U
T
1
1
2
2
481000 ft lb
1151lb x
 0
x  418 ft

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.2

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.2 Two blocks are joined by an

Two blocks are joined by an inextensible cable as shown. If the system is released

from rest, determine the velocity of block

A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that the coefficient of friction between block A and the plane is m k = 0.25 and that the pulley is weightless and frictionless.

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of work and energy separately to blocks A and B.

When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel.

Solve for the velocity.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.2

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.2 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.2 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.2 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of work and energy separately to blocks A and B.

W

A

F

A

T

1

0

200

m

k

N

A

U

1

2

F

C

kg

kg   9.81m s  m k W A  T 2 : 2m 

9.81m s

m

k

W

A

T

2

:

2m

F

A

2m

  • 2

1962 N

0.25 1962 N

  • 1 m
    2

A

v

2

490 N

F

C

2m

490 N



2m

  • 1
    2

200 kg

v

2

 

W

B

T

1

300

kg

  300 kg   9.81m s U 1  2  T 2 :

9.81m s

U

1

2

T

2

:

  • 2

2940 N

2

 

0

F

c

2m

F

c

2m

W

B

2m

2940 N



2m

  • 1 m
    2

B

v

  • 1
    2

300 kg

v

2

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.2

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.2 • When the two relations are

When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity.

F

C

2m

490

N



2m

1

2

200 kg v

2

F

c

2m

2940

N



2m

1

2

300 kg v

2

2940 N



2m

490

N



2m

1

2

200 kg

300 kg v

2

4900 J

1

2

500 kg v

2

v  4.43 m s

v 4.43 m s

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.3

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 A spring is used to stop

A spring is used to stop a 60 kg package which is sliding on a horizontal surface. The spring has a constant k = 20 kN/m

and is held by cables so that it is initially

compressed 120 mm. The package has a velocity of 2.5 m/s in the position shown and the maximum deflection of the spring is 40 mm.

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of work and energy between the initial position and the point at which the spring is fully compressed and the velocity is zero. The only unknown in the relation is the

friction coefficient.

Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound of the package. The only unknown in the relation is the velocity at the final position.

Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and surface and (b) the velocity of the package as it passes again through the position shown.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.3

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of

SOLUTION:

Apply principle of work and energy between initial

position and the point at which spring is fully compressed.

T

1

1

2

mv

2

1

  • 1 2 60kg2.5m s

  • 2 187.5J

T

2

0

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of

U

1

2

f

 

m

k

W x

 

m

k

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of

60kg 9.81m s

  • 2

0.640m

 

377 J

m

k

P

min

kx

0

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of

20 kN m



0.120 m

2400

N

P

max

k

x

0

 

x

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of

20 kN m



0.160 m

3200 N

U

1

2

e

 

1

2

P

min

P

max

x

 

1

2

2400 N

3200 N0.040 m

 

112.0 J

U

1

2

U

1

2

f

U

1

2

e

 

377Jm

k

112J

T

1

U

1

2

T

2

:

187.5J-377 J

m

k

112J

0

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 SOLUTION : • Apply principle of

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.3

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 • Apply the principle of work
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.3 • Apply the principle of work

Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound of the package.

T

2

0

T

3

1

2

mv

2

3

1

2

60kg v

2

3

U

2

3

U

   36.5J

2

3

f

U

2

3

e

 

377 J

m

k

112J

T

2

U

2

3

T

3

:

0

36.5J

1

2

60kg v

2

3

v

v 3  1.103m s
  • 3 1.103m s

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving SOLUTION: The problem deals with a

SOLUTION:

The problem deals with a change in position and different velocities, so use work-energy.

Draw FBD of the box to help us determine the forces that do work.

Packages are thrown down an incline at A with a velocity of 1 m/s. The packages slide along the surface ABC to a conveyor belt which moves with a

velocity of 2 m/s. Knowing that m k = 0.25 between the packages and the surface ABC, determine the distance d if the packages are to arrive at C with a velocity of 2 m/s.

Determine the work done between points A and C as a function of d.

Find the kinetic energy at points A and C.

Use the work-energy relationship and solve for d.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving SOLUTION: Given: v = 1 m/s,

SOLUTION:

Given: v A = 1 m/s,

v C = 2 m/s, m k = 0.25

Find: distance d

Will use:

T

A

U

A

B

U

B

C

T

C

Draw the FBD of the

block at points A and C

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving SOLUTION: Given: v = 1 m/s,
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving SOLUTION: Given: v = 1 m/s,

Determine work done A → B

N

AB

mg cos30

F

AB

m

k

N

AB

0.25

mg

cos 30

U

A

B

mg d

sin 30

 

F

AB

d

mg

d (sin 30

 

m

k

cos 30 )

Determine work done B → C

N

BC

mg

x

BC

7 m

F

BC

m

k

mg

U

B

C

 

m

k

mg x

BC

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Determine kinetic energy at A and at C

T

A

  • 1 and

2

mv

  • 2 A

A

v

1m/s

T

C

1

2

2

mv

C

and

v

C

2 m/s

Substitute values into

T

A

U

A

B

U

B

C

 T C
 T
C

1

2

2

mv

A

mg d

(sin30

  m

k

cos30 )

m mg x

k

BC

1

2

2

mv

0

Divide by m and solve for d

d

v

2

C

/2

g

m

k

x

BC

v

2

A

/2

g

(sin30

 

m

k

cos30 )

2

(2) /(2)(9.81)

(0.25)(7)

2

(1) /(2)(9.81)

sin30

 

0.25cos30

d  6.71 m
d  6.71 m

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

The potential energy stored at the top of the roller coaster is transferred to kinetic energy as the cars descend.

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics The potential energy stored at the top of the

The

elastic

potential

energy

stored in the trampoline is

transferred to

kinetic

energy

and

gravitational

potential

energy as the girl flies upwards.

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics The potential energy stored at the top of the

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Potential Energy

 • Work of the force of gravity W, U  W y W y 1
• Work of the force of gravity W,
U
 W y
W y
1
2
1
2
• Work is independent of path followed; depends
only on the initial and final values of Wy.
V
 Wy
g
potential energy of the body with respect
to force of gravity.
U
 V
 V
1
2
g
1
g
2

Choice of datum from which the elevation y is measured is arbitrary.

Units of work and potential energy are the same:

  • V g

Wy Nm J

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Potential Energy

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Potential Energy • Previous expression for potential energy of

Previous expression for potential energy of a body with respect to gravity is only valid when the weight of the body can be assumed constant.

For a space vehicle, the variation of the force of gravity with distance from the center of the earth should be considered.

Work of a gravitational force,

U

1

2

GMm

GMm

r

2

r 1
r
1

Potential energy V g when the variation in the force of gravity can not be neglected,

V g

GMm

 

WR

2

 

r

r

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Potential Energy

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Potential Energy • Work of the force exerted by

Work of the force exerted by a spring depends only on the initial and final deflections of the spring,

U

1

2

1

2

2 2

1

kx

  • 1 2

2

kx

The potential energy of the body with respect to the elastic force,

1 2 V  kx e 2 U   V    V 
1
2
V
kx
e
2
U
V
V
1
2
e
1
e
2
• Note that the preceding expression for V e is
valid only if the deflection of the spring is
measured from its undeformed position.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Conservative Forces

• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the work of the force is independent
• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the
work of the force is independent of the path
followed by its point of application.
U
 V
x , y ,z
V x
, y
,z
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
Such forces are described as conservative forces.
• For any conservative force applied on a closed path,
 F   dr   0
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Conservative Forces • Concept of potential energy can be

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Conservation of Energy

Work of a conservative force,

U

1

2

V V

1

2

Concept of work and energy,

U

1

2

T

2

T

1

Follows that

T

1

V

1

T

2

V

2

E

T

V

constant

When a particle moves under the action of conservative forces, the total mechanical

energy is constant.

Friction forces are not conservative. Total mechanical energy of a system involving

friction decreases.

Mechanical energy is dissipated by friction into thermal energy. Total energy is constant.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion Under a Conservative Central Force

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Motion Under a Conservative Central Force • When a
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Motion Under a Conservative Central Force • When a

When a particle moves under a conservative central force, both the principle of conservation of angular momentum

r mv

0

0

sin

0

rmv

sin

and the principle of conservation of energy

T

0

V

0

  • 2 GMm

  • 1

mv

T

1

V

  • 2 GMm

  • mv

  • 0

  • 2 r

0

2

r

may be applied.

Given r, the equations may be solved for v and j.

At minimum and maximum r, j  90 o . Given the launch conditions, the equations may be solved for

r min , r max , v min , and v max .

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.9

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.9 A satellite is launched in a

A satellite is launched in a direction parallel to the surface of the earth with a velocity of 36900 km/h from an altitude of 500 km.

Determine (a) the maximum altitude reached by the satellite, and (b) the maximum allowable error in the direction of launching if the satellite is to come no closer than 200 km to the surface of the earth

SOLUTION:

For motion under a conservative central force, the principles of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum may be applied simultaneously.

Apply the principles to the points of minimum and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.

Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit insertion angle error.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.9

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.9 • Apply the principles of conservation

Apply the principles of conservation of energy and

conservation of angular momentum to the points of minimum and maximum altitude to determine the maximum altitude.

Conservation of energy:

T A
T
A

V

A

T

A

V

A

1

2

mv

2

0

GMm

r

0

1

2

mv

2

1

GMm

r 1
r
1

Conservation of angular momentum:

r r mv  r mv v  v 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
r
r mv
 r mv
v
 v
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
r
1
Combining,
2
r
GM  
r
r
1
2
0
0
0
v
1
1
1
0
2
2
r
r
r
   
r
   
0
 
1
   
1
1
r
6370 km
500 km
6870 km
0
6
v
36900 km h
10.25
10
m s
0
2
2

6
GM
gR
9.81m s
6.37
10
r
60.4
10
6
m
60400 km
1
  • 2 GM

r v

0

2

0

m

2

398

10

12

m

3

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.9 • Apply the principles of conservation

s

2

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.9

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.9 • Apply the principles to the

Apply the principles to the orbit insertion point and the point

of minimum altitude to determine maximum allowable orbit

insertion angle error. Conservation of energy:

T

0

V

0

T A
T
A

V

A

1

2

mv

2

0

GMm

r

0

1

2

mv

2

max

GMm

r

min

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.9 • Apply the principles to the

Conservation of angular momentum:

r mv

0

0

sin

0

r

min

mv

max

v

max

v

0

sin

0

r

0

r

min

Combining and solving for sin j 0 ,

sin

0

0.9801

j

0

90

 

11.5

allowable error  11.5

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.6

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.6 A 20 lb collar slides without

A 20 lb collar slides without friction along a vertical rod as shown. The spring attached to the collar has an

undeflected length of 4 in. and a

constant of 3 lb/in.

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of conservation of energy between positions 1 and 2.

The elastic and gravitational potential energies at 1 and 2 are evaluated from the given information. The initial kinetic energy is zero.

Solve for the kinetic energy and velocity at 2.

If the collar is released from rest at position 1, determine its velocity after

it has moved 6 in. to position 2.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.6

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.6 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle
Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.6 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of conservation of energy between positions 1 and 2.

Position 1:

  • V e

1

2

2

kx

1

1

2

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.6 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle

3lb in.



8 in.

4 in.

2

24in. lb

  • V 1

V

e

V

g

24in. lb

0

2ft

lb

Position 2:

T

1

0

  • V e

1

2

kx

2

2

1

2

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.6 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle

3lb in.



10 in.

4 in.

2

54 in.

lb

  • V g

Wy

20 lb



6 in.

 

120 in.

lb

  • V 2

V

e

V

g

54

120

 

66 in.

lb

 

5.5 ft

lb

T

2

1

2

mv

2

2

1

20

2 32.2

v

2

2

0.311

v

2

2

Conservation of Energy:

T

1

V

1

T

2

V

2

  • 0

2 ft

lb

0.311

v

2

2

5.5 ft

lb

4.91ft s

v

2

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.6 SOLUTION : • Apply the principle

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving A section of track for a

A section of track for a roller coaster consists of two circular arcs AB and CD joined by a straight portion BC. The radius of CD is 240 ft. The car and its occupants, of total weight 560 lb, reach Point A with practically no velocity and then drop freely along the track. Determine the normal force exerted by the track on the car at point D. Neglect air resistance and rolling resistance.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

SOLUTION:

This is two part problem you will need to find the velocity of the car using work-energy, and

then use Newton’s second law

to find the normal force.

Draw a diagram with the car at points A and D, and define your datum. Use conservation of energy to solve for v D

Draw FBD and KD of the car at point D, and determine the

normal force using Newton’s

second law.

2 - 39

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving SOLUTION: Given: v = 0 ft/s,

SOLUTION:

Given: v A = 0 ft/s, r CD = 240 ft, W=560 lbs

Find: N D

Define your datum, sketch the situation at points of interest

Datum

Use conservation of energy to find v D

Find

T A

Find V A Find T D

Find V D

v

A

0

T

A

0

  • V A

Wy

A

(560 lb)(90

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving SOLUTION: Given: v = 0 ft/s,

60)=84,000 ft lbs

T

D

  • 1 2

  • 2 D

mv

1

  

560

2

32.2

  

v

2

D

8.6957

v

2

D

y

D

  • 0 V

D

0

T

A

V

A

T

D

V

D

Solve for v D

8.6957

v

  • 2 84000

D

v

  • D 98.285 ft/s

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

Draw FBD and KD at point D

W N D
W
N D
e n e t ma n ma t
e n
e t
ma n
ma t

Use Newton’s second law in the normal direction

F

n

ma

n

N

D

W

m

 

v

2

D

R

 

N

D

560

560

 

98.285

2

32.2

240

 

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Group Problem Solving Draw FBD and KD at point

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Impulsive Motion

The thrust of a rocket acts over a specific time period

to

give

the

momentum.

rocket

linear

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Impulsive Motion The thrust of a rocket acts over

The impulse applied to the railcar

by the wall brings its momentum to zero. Crash tests are often performed to help improve safety in different vehicles.

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Impulsive Motion The thrust of a rocket acts over

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• From Newton’s second law,

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Principle of Impulse and Momentum • From Newton’s second

Dimensions of the impulse of a force are force*time.

F

d

dt

mv

mv

linear momentum

Fdt

d

mv

t

2

Fdt

mv

2

mv

1

t

1

t

2

Fdt

Imp

1

2

t

1

impulse of the force

F

Units for the impulse of a force are

N

s

kg m s

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Principle of Impulse and Momentum • From Newton’s second
  • 2 s

kg

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Principle of Impulse and Momentum • From Newton’s second

m s

mv

1

Imp

1

2

mv

2

The final momentum of the particle can be obtained by adding vectorially its initial momentum and the impulse of the force during the time interval.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Impulsive Motion

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Impulsive Motion • Force acting on a particle during

Force acting on a particle during a very short time interval that is large enough to cause a significant change in momentum is called an impulsive force.

When impulsive forces act on a particle,

mv

1

F

t

mv

2

When a baseball is struck by a bat, contact occurs over a short time interval but force is large enough to change sense of ball motion.

Nonimpulsive forces are forces for which

Ft

is small and therefore, may be

neglected an example of this is the weight

of the baseball.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.10

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.10 SOLUTION: • Apply the principle of

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. The impulse is equal to the product of the constant forces and the time interval.

An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a 5 o incline at a speed of 60 mi/h when the brakes are applied, causing a constant total braking force of

1500 lb.

Determine the time required for the automobile to come to a stop.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.10

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.10 SOLUTION: • Apply the principle of

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of impulse and momentum.

mv

1

Imp

1

2

mv

2

Taking components parallel to the incline, mv   W sin 5   t 
Taking components parallel to the
incline,
mv
W
sin 5
t
Ft
0
1
 4000 
  88ft s 
4000 sin 5
t
 1500
t
32.2

0

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.10 SOLUTION: • Apply the principle of

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.11

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.11 SOLUTION: • Apply the principle of

SOLUTION:

Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in terms of horizontal and vertical component equations.

A 4 oz baseball is pitched with a velocity of 80 ft/s. After the ball is hit by the bat, it has a velocity of 120 ft/s in the direction shown. If the bat and ball are in contact for 0.015 s, determine the average impulsive force exerted on the ball during the impact.

Tenth

Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 13.11

Tenth Edition Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Sample Problem 13.11 y x SOLUTION : • Apply