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Tenth Edition

DYNAMICS

Brian P. Self

# Energy and Momentum Methods

California Polytechnic State University

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13 - 2

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Time
Impulse-

mv
 t
2
F dt  mv
1
2
t
1

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x

y

z

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a)
U
F
x
1
2
U
b)
F cos
x
1
2
c)
U
F sin
x
1
2
 0
1
2

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# Work of a Force

dU

F dx

x

F

y

dy

F dz

z

W dy

U

1

2

 

y

2

W dy

y

1

 

W

y

2

y

1

 

W

y

## a) Moving from y 1to y 2

b) Moving from y 2 to y 1

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1

2

x

2

• x 1

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

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Negative

Positive

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dU

 

Fdr

 

G

Mm

r

2

dr

U

1

2

 

r

2

G

r

1

Mm

r

2

dr

G

Mm

G

Mm

r

2

r
1

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NO

YES

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# 

## • Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F

dv
F
ma
m
t
t
dt
dv ds
dv
m
 mv
ds dt
ds
F
ds
mv dv
t
• Integrating from A 1 to A 2 ,
s
v
2
2
1
2
1
F ds
m
v dv
mv
mv
t
2
2
2
s
v
1
1

2

1

U

1

2

T

2

T
1

T

1

2

mv

• 2 kinetic energy

 m 
  s  

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The
bob
is
released

T

1

U

1

2

0

Wl

v

• 2

T
2
1 W
2
v
2
2
g
2
gl

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Power

dU

dt

F

dr

dt

F

v

# s

efficiency output work

input work power output

power input

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1

2

1

1

2

# 0

• Determine the distance required for the work to
equal the kinetic energy change.
U
1500 lb
x
4000 lb

sin 5
x
1
2
  1151lb
x
T
U
T
1
1
2
2
481000 ft lb
1151lb x
 0
x  418 ft

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W

A

F

A

T

1

0

200

m

k

N

A

U

1

2

F

C

kg

9.81m s

m

k

W

A

T

2

:

2m

F

A

2m

1962 N

0.25 1962 N

• 1 m
2

A

v

2

490 N

F

C

2m

490 N



2m

• 1
2

200 kg

v

2

W

B

T

1

300

kg

9.81m s

U

1

2

T

2

:

2940 N

2

0

F

c

2m

F

c

2m

W

B

2m

2940 N



2m

• 1 m
2

B

v

• 1
2

300 kg

v

2

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P

min

kx

0

20 kN m



0.120 m

2400

N

P

max

k

x

0

 

x

20 kN m



0.160 m

3200 N

U

1

2

e

 

1

2

P

min

P

max

x

 

1

2

2400 N

3200 N0.040 m

 

112.0 J

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N

AB

mg cos30

F

AB

m

k

N

AB

0.25

mg

cos 30

U

A

B

mg d

sin 30

 

F

AB

d

mg

d (sin 30

 

m

k

cos 30 )

BC

BC

BC

k

B

C

k

BC

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 T
C

d

v

2

C

/2

g

m

k

x

BC

v

2

A

/2

g

(sin30

 

m

k

cos30 )

2

(2) /(2)(9.81)

(0.25)(7)

2

(1) /(2)(9.81)

sin30

 

0.25cos30

d  6.71 m

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# Potential Energy

• Work of the force of gravity W,
U
 W y
W y
1
2
1
2
• Work is independent of path followed; depends
only on the initial and final values of Wy.
V
 Wy
g
potential energy of the body with respect
to force of gravity.
U
 V
 V
1
2
g
1
g
2

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r
1

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# kx

## • The potential energy of the body with respect to the elastic force,

1
2
V
kx
e
2
U
V
V
1
2
e
1
e
2
• Note that the preceding expression for V e is
valid only if the deflection of the spring is
measured from its undeformed position.

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# Conservative Forces

• Concept of potential energy can be applied if the
work of the force is independent of the path
followed by its point of application.
U
 V
x , y ,z
V x
, y
,z
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
Such forces are described as conservative forces.
• For any conservative force applied on a closed path,
 F   dr   0

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# sin

0

0

1

0

2

## • At minimum and maximum r, j  90 o. Given the launch conditions, the equations may be solved for

r min , r max , v min , and v max .

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T
A

r
1

r
r mv
 r mv
v
 v
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
r
1
Combining,
2
r
GM  
r
r
1
2
0
0
0
v
1
1
1
0
2
2
r
r
r
   
r
   
0
 
1
   
1
1
r
6370 km
500 km
6870 km
0
6
v
36900 km h
10.25
10
m s
0
2
2

6
GM
gR
9.81m s
6.37
10
r
60.4
10
6
m
60400 km
1

m

2

398

10

12

m

3

s

2

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T
A

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• V e

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

• V 1

e

g

1

• V e

1

2

kx

2

2

1

2

3lb in.



10 in.

4 in.

2

54 in.

lb

• V g

Wy

20 lb



6 in.

 

120 in.

lb

• V 2

V

e

V

g

54

120

 

66 in.

lb

 

5.5 ft

lb

T

2

1

2

mv

2

2

1

20

2 32.2

v

2

2

0.311

v

2

2

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2 - 39

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W
N D
e n
e t
ma n
ma t

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t

2

2

1

t

1

t

2

1

2

t

1

1

1

2

2

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# 2

Taking components parallel to the
incline,
mv
W
sin 5
t
Ft
0
1
 4000 
  88ft s 
4000 sin 5
t
 1500
t
32.2

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