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Knowledge Management & Expert System Module-3

We are in a knowledge-base society!

Most of our work is information based Organizations compete on the basis of knowledge Products and services available in the society are increasingly complex Life-long learning is inevitable needed

Why KM in knowledge-base business economy?

Foster innovation
By encouraging the free flow of ideas

Improve customer service

By streamlining response time

Boost revenues
By getting products and services to market faster

Enhance employee retention rates

By recognizing the value of employees knowledge and rewarding them for it

Streamline operations and reduce costs

By eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes

Awareness and understanding of a set of information and the ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision

Knowledge management system (KMS):

Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to create, store, share, and use the organizations knowledge and experience

The role of IT in KM
Information technology, by itself is not KM However,
KM is often facilitated by IT IT provides solutions to KM IT is a tool to increase the efficiency and capability of KM

IT, as a facilitator of KM facilitates document management, data storage, access of information, the dissemination, exchange and sharing of ideas

Creating more values via IT

Enhancing efficiency! Higher productivity!


The new strategic framework of IT

Focus - to identify key technology focus areas where organization has competitive advantages Market relevance - to adopt a demand-led, market-driven approach in driving the innovation and technology programme Industry participation - to closely involve the industry in defining the key focus areas and other stages of innovation and technology development

Leverage - applied R&D and commercialization of applied R&D deliverables Better coordination - to strengthen coordination among various technologyrelated institutions and the industry

Digital entertainment VoIP Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) IPv6 The regulation of SPAM IT Professionalization

Tools for capturing and using knowledge include:

Data mining and business intelligence Enterprise resource planning tools, such as SAP Groupware

Examples of specific KM products

IBMs Lotus Notes, Domino Microsofts Digital Dashboard, Web Store Technology, Access Workflow Designer

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI): ability of computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain AI-based computer systems have many applications in different fields, such as:
Medical diagnoses Exploration for natural resources Determining what is wrong with mechanical devices Assisting in designing and developing other computer systems

Artificial intelligence systems: people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence

The Nature of Intelligence

Learn from experience and apply knowledge acquired from experience
Example: computerized AI chess software

Handle complex situations Solve problems when important information is missing Determine what is important React quickly and correctly to a new situation Understand visual images
Perceptive system: approximates the way humans hear, see, or feel objects On a limited basis with machine-vision hardware and software

Process and manipulate symbols

Be creative and imaginative

Example: writing short stories

Use heuristics
Obtaining good solutions (rather than the optimal) through approximation

Expert Systems
Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert Used in many business applications Robotics- Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are tedious or hazardous for humans Contemporary robotics combines high-precision machine capabilities with sophisticated controlling software Many applications of robotics exist today Research into robots is continuing

Vision Systems
Hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures Used by the U.S. Justice Department to perform fingerprint analysis Can be used in identifying people based on facial features Can be used with robots to give these machines sight

Natural Language Processing and Voice Recognition

Natural language processing: allows the computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a natural language, such as English Voice recognition involves converting sound waves into words

Learning Systems
Combination of software and hardware that allows the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives Learning systems software requires feedback on the results of actions or decisions Feedback is used to alter what the system will do in the future

Neural Networks
A program that is constructed of multiple artificial neurons which interact with one another and "learn" a model used to take intelligent action Computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain Ability to retrieve information even if some of the neural nodes fail Fast modification of stored data as a result of new information Ability to discover relationships and trends in large databases Ability to solve complex problems for which all the information is not present

Expert Systems
Like human experts, computerized expert systems use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to arrive at conclusions or make suggestions Used in many fields for a variety of tasks, such as:
Designing new products and systems Developing innovative insurance products Increasing the quality of healthcare Determining credit limits for credit cards Determining the best fertilizer mix to use on certain soils

When to Use Expert Systems

Develop an expert system if it can do any of the following: Provide a high potential payoff or significantly reduce downside risk Capture and preserve irreplaceable human expertise Solve a problem that is not easily solved using traditional programming techniques Develop a system more consistent than human experts Provide expertise needed at a number of locations at the same time or in a hostile environment that is dangerous to human health Provide expertise that is expensive or rare Develop a solution faster than human experts can Provide expertise needed for training and development to share the wisdom and experience of human experts with a large number of people


Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems

Domain expert: individual or group who has the expertise or knowledge one is trying to capture in the expert system Knowledge engineer: individual who has training or experience in the design, development, implementation, and maintenance of an expert system Knowledge user: individual or group who uses and benefits from the expert system

Credit granting and loan Plant layout and manufacturing analysis Hospitals and medical facilities Stock picking Probability of contracting diseases, lab analysis, home Catching cheats and terrorists
Gambling casinos diagnosis, appointment scheduling



Help desks and assistance Employee performance Games evaluation Crossword puzzles Information management and Virus detection retrieval Uses neural network technology Uses bots Repair and maintenance AI and expert systems embedded Telephone networks, aerospace equipment in products Antilock braking system, Shipping and marketing television Warehouse optimization
Prototype testing programs Restocking, location

Online Analytical Processing

Enables mangers and analysts to examine and manipulate large amounts of detailed and consolidated data from many perspectives Done interactively in real time with rapid response

OLAP Analytical Operations

Aggregation of data

Display detail data that comprise consolidated data

Slicing and Dicing

Ability to look at the database from different viewpoints

Data Mining
Main purpose is to provide decision support to managers and business professionals through knowledge discovery Analyzes vast store of historical business data Tries to discover patterns, trends, and correlations hidden in the data that can help a company improve its business performance Use regression, decision tree, neural network, cluster analysis, or market basket analysis

Data Visualization Systems

DSS that represents complex data using interactive three-dimensional graphical forms such as charts, graphs, and maps DVS tools help users to interactively sort, subdivide, combine, and organize data while it is in its graphical form

Data visualization is the study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information that has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information Visual Data Mining (VDM) is a new approach for exploring very large data sets, combining traditional mining methods and information visualization techniques.

Visualization for Data Mining Huge amounts of information Limited display capacity of output devices

Why Visual Data Mining


VDM takes advantage of both, The power of automatic calculations, and The capabilities of human processing.
Human perception offers phenomenal abilities to extract structures from pictures

Levels of VDM
No or very limited integration
Corresponds to the application of either traditional information, visualization or automated data mining methods. Visualization and automated mining methods are applied sequentially. The result of one step can be used as input for another step.

Loose integration

Full integration

Automated mining and visualization methods applied in parallel.

Combination of the results.

Adaptive Data Visualization System Properties

Interactive and adaptive Correctness Maximizing Domain knowledge integration achieved by choosing proper association function transformation functions during visualization process. Interactive/ Provide mechanism for views to adjust or change transformation functions during visualization process. Interaction allows user to guide visualization system step by step to display/ clarify what is of interest.

Methods of Data Visualization

Different methods are available for visualization of data based on type of data

Data can be Univariate Bivariate Multivariate


Univariate data
Measurement of single quantitative variable Characterize distribution Represented using following methods
Histogram Pie Chart



Pie Chart


Bivariate Data
Constitutes of paired samples of two quantitative variables Variables are related Represented using following methods
Scatter plots Line graphs

Scatter plots


Line graphs


Multivariate Data
Multi dimensional representation of multivariate data Represented using following methods
Icon based methods Pixel based methods Dynamic parallel coordinate system

Icon based Methods


Pixel Based Methods

Each attribute value is represented by one colored pixel (the value ranges of the attributes are mapped to a fixed color map). The values of each attribute are presented in separate sub windows.

Dense Pixel Displays

Dense Pixel Display

Each attribute value is represented by one colored pixel (the value ranges of the attributes are mapped to a fixed color map). Different attributes are presented in separate sub windows.