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Session - 1

Basics Of Computers

A Desktop Machine

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A Computer System
Hardware Software User
User

Software
Hardware

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A Computer System (Contd.)


In general, a computer is a machine which accepts data, processes it and returns new information as output.
Processing
Data Information

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Software
Software is set of programs (which are step by step instructions) telling the computer how to process data. Software needs to be installed on a computer, usually from a CD. Softwares can be divided into two groups: - System SW - Application SW

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Software (Contd.)
System Software It controls the overall operation of the system. It is stored in the computer's memory and instructs the computer to load, store, and execute an application.

Examples: Operating System (OS), Translators DOS, Windows, Unix etc.


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Software (Contd..)
Application Software They are Softwares written to perform specific tasks.

The basic types of application software are: word processing, database, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, and communication. Examples: MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook, ISBS, MODBANKER BANKSOFT
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Advantages of Using Computers


Speed: Computers can carry out instructions in less
than a millionth of a second.

Accuracy : Computers can do the calculations without


errors and very accurately.

Diligence : Computers are capable of performing any


task given to them repetitively.

Storage Capacity : Computers can store large


volume of data and information on magnetic media.

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History of Evolution Of Computers


Two Eras:
Mechanical Era (Before 1945) Electronic Era (1945 - )

Can be divided into generations.


First Generation (1945 1954) Second Generation (1955 1964) Third Generation (1965 1974) Fourth Generation (1975 - )

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Types of Computers
On the basis of Computing Power & Size:
Laptop / Palmtop Micro Computer / Desktop Mini Computer / Mainframe Super Computer

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Language of Computers
Computers only understand the electronic signals. Either Current is flowing or not. Current Flowing : ON Current Not Flowing : OFF Binary Language ON : 1 OFF : 0

Bit, Byte, KB, MB, GB


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Computer Network
A Computer Network is interconnection of Computers to share resources. Resources can be : Information, Load, Devices etc.

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Types Of Computer Networks


On the basis of Size: Local Area Network (LAN)
Its a network of the computers locally i.e. in one room, one building.

Wide Area Network (WAN) Its a network of the computers spread widely geographically.

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Benefits of Computer Networks


Information Sharing Device Sharing Load Sharing Mobility Fast Communication Anywhere Anytime Banking

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Internet
Internet is a huge network of computer networks. Internet provides many services: Email World Wide Web (www) Remote Login (Telnet) File Transfer (FTP)

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End Of Session #1
ANY Queries ??????

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CPU ( Central Processing Unit)


The central processing unit (CPU), also known as just a "processor, is the "brain" of your computer.
It contains various electronic circuits.

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VDU (Monitor)
This is the television-like screen where the results of a computer's tasks are displayed. Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonly they are either 15 or 17 inches (measured diagonally from one corner of the screen to the opposite corner).

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Keyboard
The keyboard looks like a typewriter. It contains all the letters of the alphabet, numbers and some special symbols. It operates like a typewriter keypad, but instead of moving an arm, which strikes the paper, it sends an electronic impulse to the computer, which displays a character on the monitor.
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Mouse
Its

a device that is used to control the computer. A cable connects the mouse to the computer.

When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves. A cursor is a small symbol displayed on the computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that is used as a pointer) that shows you what the mouse is referencing on the screen.
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Printer
A printer is designed to output information from a computer onto a piece of paper.

There are three kinds of printers: dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.

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Scanner
A scanner is a device used to copy an image off paper and convert it into a digital image, which can be saved as a computer file and stored on a hard drive. Scanners can also use a special kind of technology called Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an editable document file
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Session # 2 Inside The CPU Cabinet

A Look Inside.

Floppy

CD

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A Look Inside ..
power supply

CD-ROM drive
floppy drive

cards

hard drive

motherboard
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A Look Inside
Identify all the major components: Power Supply Motherboard Memory Card Slots Cards (sound, video, network) CPU, heatsink and fan Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)

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What these components do.


Power Supply (heart) supplies power to all the circuitry and devices. Motherboard (body) acts as a manager for everything on the computer connects all the other components together. CPU Central Processing Unit (brain) this does all the work of computing.

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What these components do.. RAM Random Access Memory (short-term memory) holds data and program instructions that the computer is currently using. Hard Drive (long-term memory) holds all of the information that needs to be stored between uses of the computer. Floppy and CD-ROM drives (mouth/ears) allow you to give data to the computer and take data away from the computer.
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What these components do


Card Slots (fingers) Allows other components to be added to the computer. Video card (face) Does all of the processing necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen, quickly. Sound card (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD or CD-ROM to be played. Network Card (telephone) allows computer to talk to other computers over a wire.
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Power Supply
SMPS Switch Mode Power Supply Switching Transistors Outputs + 5V, -5V, +12 V, -12 V Typical Costs are: ATX Rs.700 Non ATX Rs.300 Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet.
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Motherbo ard

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CPU A Single Chip


CU

ALU

Memory Registers

Examples: Intel Family Pentium 4, 3, 2, Pentium, XEON, Itanium AMD -- Athlon, K62 IBM -- Cyrix Motorola -- 68000 Series
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RAM

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Hard Drive
We wont remove this.

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Floppy Drive

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CD-ROM Drive

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Ribbon Cables

polarized

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Video Card

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Sound Card

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Back of Computer

Remove these screws

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End of Session # 2 Queries???

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CPU The central processing unit or (CPU) is the "brain" of your computer. It contains the electronic circuits that cause the computer to follow instructions from memory.

The CPU contains three main parts, all housed in a single package (Chip):

Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Memory


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BACK

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)


edit: Edits a file. C:\> edit <filename> This will open a editor window where the contents of file can be seen. These contents could also be edited here and on saving, the contents of file will change.

type: Displays the content of a file.


C:\> type <filename> This will display the contents of file on the computer. The contents of file could only be viewed but could not be changed, as in the case of edit.

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End of Session #4
Queries???

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QUIZ
1. Name any four devices of a Computer. Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Light Pen. 2. What is the job of CPU? Central Processing Unit controls and coordinates all the activities of the computer.

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QUIZ
3. What is the unit of measuring the speed of the processor? Mega Hertz or Kilo Hertz ( No. of CPU Cycles/second) 4. What is a computer network? It is interconnection of computers to make a LAN,MAN or WAN.

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QUIZ
5. Name any three storage devices. Hard Disk, Magnetic Tape, Compact Disk. 6. What is command to create directory? C:\>MD <<dir-name>>

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QUIZ
7. What is Internet? It is the network of networks. 8. What are different types of printers? Dot Matrix Printer, Inkjet Laser

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QUIZ
9.What is the use of Scanner?

It is used to copy the real paper to be stored as the computer.

image on digital image in

10. Why Operating system is required? It is required to provide the interface between the user and the computer.

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THANK YOU

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