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What is Value?
Values are broad preferences concerning courses of action or outcomes. Basic convictions/ enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.

Certain Characteristics
They are relatively stable and enduring Values are not fixed, but they change slowly
Generational Values

Values contain content attributes( mode of conduct) and intensity attributes

Values and Ethics

Ethics is an extension of value considerations. There is increasing evidence that ethical practices translate into better financial performance for organizations. 188 Fortune 500 companies which were convicted for unethical practices had significantly lower return on assets as well as returns on sales. In India companies like Tata, WIPRO, Infosys and L&T show how ethics and profitability go together.

Types of Values ( Milton Rokeach Value Survey)

Terminal Values- the desirable end-states of existence ( peace, a comfortable life, freedom, working for the unprivileged) Instrumental values-the preferable modes of behaviour, or means of achieving the terminal values ( hardworking, helpful, responsible)

Sources of Value System

A significant portion is established during early years The environment in which the individual is brought up also influences ones value system Certain values are developed over time and these are continuously reinforced. In America achievement, peace, cooperation, equity and democracy are societal values. In India tolerance, sacrifice, respect, god fearing and renunciation are important social values.

Values Across Culture

(Greet Hofstead's findings)
Power distance Individualism versus collectivism Masculinity Vs femininity Uncertainty avoidance Long Vs Short term orientation Indulgence Vs restrains

Indulgence Vs restrains
This is the most recent addition to Hofsteads typology. Indulgence is the degree to which it is alright for people to enjoy life, have fun and fulfill natural human desires. Restrain is the extent to which there are social norms governing the gratification of basic human desires and human behaviour.

India Vs USA
Value Dimensions Power distance Individualism versus collectivism Masculinity Vs femininity Score ( India) 77 48 Score ( USA) 40 91



Uncertainty avoidance
Long Vs Short term orientation Indulgence Vs restraint





Can you recognize Hofsteads Value dimensions highlighted in the following statements?

Cooperation is considered better because it promotes harmony between people. People strive for personal achievement People believe in minimizing inequality People are more willing to take risks and more comfortable with individual differences. Cultural values are oriented towards future

What is an attitude?
Attitude can be defined as a persistent psychological tendency to feel and behave in a particular way. They are evaluative statements- either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events

Job related Attitudes

Job satisfaction Job involvement Organisational commitment

The Components of an Attitude

Cognitive component- the opinion or belief statement of an attitude. Affective/Evaluative/Emotional component-ones feeling or how you feel about a particular thing. Behavioral component- an intention to behave in certain way toward someone or something.

Are Attitudes Consistent?

People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour. When there is an inconsistency, attempts are made either to alter the attitudes or the behaviour or to develop rationalization for the discrepancy.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Leon Festinger)

Cognitive Dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes or between his or her behaviour and attitudes. The desire to reduce the dissonance would be determined by The importance of the elements The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements The rewards that may be involved in the dissonance

Influences on Attitude Formation

Direct Experience

Social Learning

Attitude Behaviour Relationship

Attitude Behaviour relationship is influenced by some moderating variablesImportance of the Attitude Specificity of Attitude Accessibility Social Pressure

How to change attitudes?

Persuasion Communication New information Resolving the discrepancies Influence of friends & peers Reduced relevance of an object Use of fear and reward Training

Work Attitudes
Job satisfaction
Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Job dissatisfaction

Workplace deviance behavior

What is job satisfaction?

Job satisfaction is the overall attitude of an individual toward his or her job. E.A. Locke(1976) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience.

How satisfied people are?

People are generally satisfied with their jobs. Satisfaction level is going down Satisfaction level varies for different groups JS is a relatively stable disposition.

Determinants of Job Satisfaction

Organisational Factors
Reward system Nature of work Quality of supervision Working condition Supportive colleagues Decentralisation of power

Individual Determinants
Status and seniority Age Marital Status No. of dependents Personality General life satisfaction Personality-job fit

The Effect of JS on Work Behaviour

Job performance Absenteeism Turnover Accidents Customer satisfaction OCB Physical and mental health

What satisfies Indian Employees (Results of 17 research studies conducted between 1965to 1997) Managers/Supervisors- Responsibility, work
itself, achievement, recognition , relationship with co-workers are the most important factors contributing to the job satisfaction of Indian managers/supervisor. Domestic life and adequate money also satisfy them. Workers-Most important factor is money. This is followed by job security. ( 12 out of 16 studies confirm this).