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Conceptual Physical Science

5th Edition
Chapter 22: SHAPING EARTHS SURFACE
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This lecture will help you understand:


The Hydrologic Cycle Groundwater The Work of Groundwater Surface Water and Drainage Systems The Work of Surface Water Glaciers and Glaciation The Work of Glaciers The Work of Air

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The Hydrologic Cycle


More than 97% of all Earths water is in the oceans.
Only 1 % of Earths water is available to us as water vapor, groundwater, and freshwater.
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The Hydrologic Cycle


Earths waters are constantly circulating.
The driving forces are: Heat from the Sun Force of gravity

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The Hydrologic Cycle


The hydrologic cycle is the set of processes that controls the circulation of water on Earth.
Processes involved in the hydrologic cycle:
Evaporation Precipitation Infiltration Runoff

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The Hydrologic Cycle


Water that goes from the ocean back to the ocean makes a complete loop in the hydrologic cycle.
The journey is not always direct.
Water can flow as streams, rivers, and groundwater Water can also be frozen in ice caps and glaciers
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The Hydrologic Cycle CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Earths natural supply of fresh water comes from:

A. B. C. D.

Ice caps. Artesian springs. Glaciers. Rain and snow.

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The Hydrologic Cycle CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Earths natural supply of fresh water comes from:

A. B. C. D.

Ice caps. Artesian springs. Glaciers. Rain and snow. Explanation: Rain and snow deliver the water that forms ice caps, aquifers, glaciers, and streams.

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Groundwater
Factors that influence storage and movement of groundwater:
Porosity: ratio of open space in soil, sediment, or rock to total volume of solids plus voids the amount of open space underground. Greater porosity equals more potential to store greater amounts of groundwater. Particle size, shape, and sorting influence porosity.
Soil with rounded particles of similar size has higher porosity than soil with various sizes.
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Groundwater
Permeability
Degree to which groundwater can flow through a porous materialhigher permeability, greater potential for fluid flow. Sediment packing and connectedness of pores influences permeability. Hydraulic conductivitya measure of permeabilitytells us the degree to which the material can transmit water.

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Groundwater
The Water Table Water beneath the ground exists as groundwater and soil moisture.
Groundwater occurs in the saturated zone water has filled all pore spaces. Soil moisture is above the saturated zone in the unsaturated zonepores filled with water and air.

The water table is the boundary between these two zones.


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Groundwater
The Water Table

The depth of the water table varies with precipitation and climate.
Zero in marshes and swamps, hundreds of meters in some deserts. At perennial lakes and streams, the water table is above the land surface. The water table tends to rise and fall with the surface topography.

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Groundwater
Aquifers and Springs
Aquifers are reservoirs of groundwater.
Aquifers are a vital source of fresh water. Aquifers generally have high porosity and high permeability. Aquifers underlie the land surface in many areas. It is important to keep this vital source of fresh water clean and contaminant free.

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Groundwater
Aquifers and Springs
A perched water table occurs when discontinuous, low-permeability layers in an unconfined aquifer intercept percolating water above the water table.

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Groundwater
Aquifers and Springs
Geologists can often use springs to locate faults, because a spring can indicate that there are cracks or breaks in the rock.

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Groundwater CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A soil with rounded particles of similar size will have a higher porosity than a soil with rounded particles of various sizes, because
A. B. C. D. it will have a higher permeability. water flows more easily through rounded particles. smaller sediment grains will fill the open pore spaces between larger grains. poorly sorted sediment will have more open pore spaces.

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Groundwater CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A soil with rounded particles of similar size will have a higher porosity than a soil with rounded particles of various sizes, because
A. B. C. D. it will have a higher permeability. water flows more easily through rounded particles. smaller sediment grains will fill the open pore spaces between larger grains. poorly sorted sediment will have more open pore spaces.

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Groundwater
Groundwater Movement
The elevation of a water table above a particular locationusually sea level is called the hydraulic head.

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Groundwater
Groundwater Movement
Darcys law:
Groundwater flow rate = hydraulic conductivity cross-sectional area hydraulic gradient

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The Work of Groundwater


Flowing groundwater can alter and change features at the surface:
Land subsidence Caves and caverns Sinkholes

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The Work of Groundwater


Land Subsidence
Extreme groundwater withdrawal by pumping from wells can result in lowering of the landland subsidence. Land subsidence is especially prevalent in areas underlain by aquifers made of sandy sediments and interbedded clays. The clays leak water to the sand, then when water is pumped out, the clays shrink and compact, causing subsidence.
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The Work of Groundwater


Caverns and Caves
The dissolving action of groundwater eats away at rocklimestone in particular. Rainwater chemically reacts with CO2 in the air and soil, producing carbonic acid. The acidified water seeps into rock (especially limestone), partially dissolving it.

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The Work of Groundwater


Caverns and Caves
Groundwater has carved out magnificent caves and caverns (a cavern is a large cave).

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The Work of Groundwater


Sinkholes
Sinkholes are funnel-shaped cavities in the ground that are open to the sky. Sinkholes are formed in a manner similar to caves. Sinkholes can also be formed from conditions of drought and the overwithdrawal of groundwater.

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The Work of Groundwater


Karst Regions
Karst regions are characterized by soft rolling hills or sharp, rugged surfaces.
Karst regions are areas where sinkholes, caves, and caverns define the land surface.

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The Work of Groundwater CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

What kind of formation is this?


A. B. C. D. Floodplain Karst Glacier Artesian spring

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The Work of Groundwater CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

What kind of formation is this?


A. B. C. D. Floodplain Karst Glacier Artesian spring

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Surface Water and Drainage Systems


Surface water includes streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Infiltration of water is controlled by:
Intensity and duration of precipitation Prior wetness condition of the soil Soil type Slope of the land Nature of the vegetative cover

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Surface Water and Drainage Systems


Running water shapes Earths surface in two opposing ways:
It carves out the landscape. It deposits sediments.

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Surface Water and Drainage Systems


Stream Flow Geometry
Factors that determine stream velocity:
Gradient, or slope Dischargevolume of water moving past a given point in a certain amount of time Channel geometry characteristics shape and size

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Surface Water and Drainage Systems


Stream Flow Geometry
Average stream speed = discharge / cross-sectional area Stream speed is usually not constant along the length of a stream. As the stream moves downslope, the gradient decreases and the channel widens. Discharge usually increases as tributaries add water.
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Surface Water and Drainage Systems


Stream Flow Geometry
Stream speed varies within a channel. It is slower along the stream bed (friction) and faster near the surface. In a straight channel, maximum flow speed is mid-channel. In a curving channel, maximum flow speed is on the outside of each bend.
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Surface Water and Drainage Systems


Drainage Basins and Networks
The land area that contributes water to a stream is called the drainage basin.
Drainage basins are separated by drainage divides. The largest drainage divides are continental divides.

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The Work of Surface Water


Flowing surface water sculpts and shapes Earths surface:
Erosionerosive sculpting action carves the landscape Depositionshapes the land as sediment is deposited

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The Work of Surface Water


Streamflowtwo types of flow
Laminar flowslow and gentle Turbulent flowfast and rapid

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The Work of Surface Water


Streams transport great amounts of sediment from one location to another. Laminar flows can lift and carry only the very smallest and lightest particles. A turbulent flow can move and carry a range of particle sizesit moves particles downstream mainly by lifting them into the flow or by rolling and sliding them along the channel bottom. The smaller, finer particles remain suspended to make the water murky.
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The Work of Surface Water


Erosion and Transport of Sediment
Chemical Weathering: Stream water carries dissolved substances that chemically weather and erode rock. Hydraulic Action: Erosion and movement of great quantities of sediment and rock. Abrasion: Abrasion occurs when sediments and particles scour a channel.
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The Work of Surface Water


Erosion and Transport of Sediment
Stream erosion:
Loosely consolidated particles are lifted by abrasion and dissolution.

Stronger currents lift particles more effectively:


Stronger currents have higher energy Lift and transport more and bigger particles Turbulent versus laminar flow

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The Work of Surface Water


Stream Valley and Floodplains
Stream channels in high mountain areas cut into underlying rock. Fast-moving rapids and beautiful waterfalls are characteristic of Vshaped mountain stream valleys.
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The Work of Surface Water


Stream Valleys and Floodplains
Stream speed plays a role in erosion and deposition.
In a meandering stream channel, maximum stream speed is on the outside bend of the channelthe cut banka place of erosion. On the inside bend, stream speed slows to create a point bara place of deposition.
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The Work of Surface Water


Stream Valleys and Floodplains
Meandering streams create a wide belt of almost flat land: a floodplain.
When a flood occurs, sediment is deposited in the floodplain. Large, coarse sediment creates natural levees.

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The Work of Surface Water


Deltas: The End of the Line for a River
A delta is where a flowing stream meets a standing body of water. The flow slows down and the stream dumps sediment. The result is a fan-shaped deposit of new land.

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The Work of Surface Water CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

This picture shows an example of what geologic feature?


A. B. C. D. Floodplain Delta Turbulent flow Rapids

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The Work of Surface Water CHECK YOUR ANSWER

This picture shows an example of what geologic feature?


A. B. C. D. Floodplain Delta Turbulent flow Rapids

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Glaciers and Glaciation


Glaciers are powerful agents of erosion. A glacier is like a plow as it scrapes and plucks up rock and sediment. Glaciers are also powerful agents of deposition. A glacier is like a sled as it carries its heavy load to distant places.

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Glaciers and Glaciation


Glacier Formation and Movement
A glacier is an accumulation of snow and ice thick enough to move under its own weight.
Two types of glaciers:
Alpine Continental

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Glaciers and Glaciation


Glacier Formation and Movement
When a glaciers ice mass becomes about 50 meters thick, the pressure of the overlying material causes the base of the ice to move plasticallythe entire mass shifts. Also, meltwater at the base of the glacier creates basal sliding.

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Glaciers and Glaciation


Glacier Formation and Movement
The mass of a glacier changes over time. As snow falls, accumulation makes the glacier grow. As ice melts, sublimates, or breaks off, ablation occurs.

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The Work of Glaciers


Glacial Erosion and Erosional Landforms
Alpine glaciers develop in mountainous areas, generally confined to individual valleys.
Cascades, Rockies, Andes, Himalayas Erosional landforms: cirque, arte, horn, hanging valley, U-shaped valley

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The Work of Glaciers


Glacial Sedimentation and Depositional Landforms
When glacial ice melts, it drops a poorly sorted, heterogeneous load of boulders, pebbles, sand, and clay. A wide range of particle sizes is the hallmark that differentiates glacial sediment from the much-better-sorted material deposited by streams and winds.
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The Work of Air


Wind blows everywhere, but its impact on sculpting the land is minor. Impact is greatest where: Strong winds blow frequently Vegetation is sparse or absent
Plant roots keep particles together Plants deflect wind and shelter particles

Surface particles are small


Small particles are more easily lifted and transported
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Surface Processes CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

There are many erosive agents that sculpt Earths surface. Overall, the erosive agent that does the most work is

A. B. C. D.

wind. groundwater. running water. glaciers.

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Surface Processes CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

There are many erosive agents that sculpt Earths surface. Overall, the erosive agent that does the most work is

A. B. C. D.

wind. groundwater. running water. glaciers.

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