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Nischay Kumar Upamannyu

Communication is a tool
Communication is a unique tool that is used by the

marketers to persuade consumer to act in desired manner. Communication can be used in many forms. It can be written or spoken, a picture, a product demonstration, some kind of body language, or a combination of verbal and visual. The communication can also be symbolic. Effective communication can trigger favorable feeling and emotion. in fact, communication can work as bridge between marketers and consumer.

What is marketing communication

Marketing communications is nothing but the science and

art of communicating information that the company wants to divulge to the public. The information could be related to the marketing of a product, talk about a new product launch or community initiatives taken by the company. The whole exercise is called a science and an art because there are set rules and patterns to the manner in which communication should be drafted, the ability to communicate effectively is an art.

Goal of marketing communication

A primary goal of marketing communication is

To reach a defined audience to affect its behavior by informing, 2. Persuading, and reminding. 3. Marketing communication acquires new customers for brands by building awareness and encouraging trial. 4. Marketing communication also maintains a brand's current customer base by reinforcing their purchase behavior by providing additional information about the brand's benefits. A secondary goal of marketing communication is building and reinforcing relationships with customers, prospects, retailers, and other important stakeholders.

Element of marketing communication

For marketing communication to be successful, however,

sound management decisions must be made in the other three areas of the marketing mix: the product, service; the price at which the brand will be offered; and the places at or through which customers may purchase the brand. The best promotion cannot overcome poor product quality, inordinately high prices, or insufficient retail distribution.

Element of marketing communication

Marketing communication process

Marketing communication involves sharing of meaning, information and concept by the source for the receiver about product and services and that information about the company selling. The effective communication takes place when a sender (source) sends an information in terms of message in a favorable manner that satisfies the sender and receiver both. In any communication, there are four basic component, a source, a destination, a medium, and a message.

Source:- it is an initiator or sender of the message, may

wish to communicate a feeling, an attitude, a belief or some fact to another person . Destination:- the meaning of destination is that place where the message has to be delivered and communicated that is ultimate consumer that are targeted through the communication process, at place where the communication are divulged to the customer. A medium:- medium may be defined as the mode of media through which message are communicated. A message:- message may be verbal or symbolic but when the message are composed so it must be targeted oriented for the prospect customer or well understandable.

Element of marketing communication process

1. Source:- A marketing company or any company that want


4. 5.

communicate the customer in respect of product or service and sender of message. The message:- The commercial idea, sales story, the copy theme. The channel:- The vehicle carrying the message, a salesman, an advertising medium, sales literature sent through the mail, telephone, radio, or a group of person; the receiver is a potential customer, purchase influencer or seller. The receiver:- A person or a group of persons; the receiver is a potential customer. The feedback:- A response, a reaction or message sent back by a customer to the marketer. The feedback improves the effectiveness of communication.

Marketing Communication Process

Source Marketing Management With idea to communicate Encoding message may be sales talk advertisement , sales promotion Channel message, channel newspaper, radio, T.V, salesman, Direct mal

Feed back

Consumer information channel , marketing research, audience survey, dealers,

Result action on message change in behavior of consumer

Decoding consumer as a receiver gives meaning and interpretation to the message

Promotion as communication
Promotion is one of the very important tool of marketing

mix that is used for spreading awareness, communicating or targeting prospect customer in respect product or service therefore it is said better that promotion as communication. There are certain element of promotion mix that is used by the an organization for spreading awareness of its own product and service.

Element of promotion mix

Personal Selling.

Sales Promotion.
Public Relations. Direct Mail.

Trade Fairs and Exhibitions.

Advertising. Sponsorship.

Personal selling:- Personal Selling is an effective way to

manage personal customer relationships. The sales person acts on behalf of the organization. They tend to be well trained in the approaches and techniques of personal selling. However sales people are very expensive and should only be used where there is a genuine return on investment. For example salesmen are often used to sell cars or home improvements where the margin is high. Sales promotion :- it is an important techniques to increase sales in short term period and this generally would be implemented for short period of time. For example the BOGOF promotion, or Buy One Get One Free. Others include couponing, money-off promotions, free accessories (such as free blades with a new razor), introductory offers (such as buy digital TV and get free installation), and so on.

Public Relation:- Public Relations is defined as 'the

deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics' (Institute of Public Relations).
Direct Mail:- Direct mail is very highly focused upon

targeting consumers based upon a database. As with all marketing, the potential consumer is 'defined' based upon a series of attributes and similarities. Creative agencies work with marketers to design a highly focused communication in the form of a mailing. The mail is sent out to the potential consumers and responses are carefully monitored.

Trade fair and exhibition:- Such approaches are very good for

making new contacts and renewing old ones. Companies will seldom sell much at such events. The purpose is to increase awareness and to encourage trial. They offer the opportunity for companies to meet with both the trade and the consumer. Sponsorship:- Sponsorship is where an organization pays to be associated with a particular event, cause or image. Companies will sponsor sports events such as the Olympics or Formula One. The attributes of the event are then associated with the sponsoring organization. Advertising:- Advertising is a 'paid for' communication. It is used to develop attitudes, create awareness, and transmit information in order to gain a response from the target market. There are many advertising 'media' such as newspapers (local, national, free, trade), magazines and journals, television (local, national, terrestrial, satellite) cinema, outdoor advertising (such as posters, bus sides).

Meaning of Noise
Goal of all communication process is crystal clear

understanding of given message. If anything that interference with this understanding is called NOISE. In general terms noise can be understood any communication that can not fully explained, can be categorized as noise.

What is noise
Noise - communication villain is any interference that takes

place between transmission (sender) and reception of a message, and it include anything moving in the channel other than desired signal by the sender.

Noise is in communication process

Types of Noise
Environmental noise: Noise in the surrounding

environment, vehicles moving, students giggling and many more.



Physiological impairment noise: This noise is

created due to physiological limitations like partial or full deafness, or blindness or inability to understand normal communications.
Semantic noise: Here a particular word may have

several meanings, like the word drugs.

Syntactical noise: These are mistakes in construction of

sentences or grammatical mistakes the give a whole different meaning to the sentence
Organizational noise: if the matter that is being

conveyed is organized improperly with no clear flow or direction of thought, the listener may get lost.
Psychological noise: This is when the receiver or listener

is not in the right frame of mind to interpret the said words as they were meant. This could be due to anger, sadness, happiness or frustration or any other reason.

Basic categories of Noise

In general terms noise can be separated into two basic

category, 1. Internal 2. External

Internal Noise:1. Internal noise refer to the uniqueness of human being that causes them to bring different perception to a message. These internal noise have become an entire field of study called Semantic it is because meaning of study, language and effect on man. 2. Internal noise is also caused by psychological or physiological state. For example- while reading, your stomach signaled strongly that food was needed, naturally, you would be experiencing at the moment that your hunger distracted your attention from the reading.

External Noise:- It refers to those environmental qualities

that interfere with communication effectiveness, for example- temperature, light, room size, any disturbing sound.
In radio reception, under adverse circumstance. If any

message delivered through radio due to adverse atmosphere if the quality of message does not meet the level of standard that was being earlier expected by the listener so there would be noise form sender.

In case of telephony if there would be any electrical

interference from the power lines, cross talk, and ringing signal from other telephone circuits or noise from repeating voice, these distortion in communication may raise unsatisfactory communication.
In case of business office noise will be produced by the

secretary typing in the next room, the sound on the street, and the sound of shuffling of papers.

Objective of promotion communication

The most obvious objective of

marketers have for promotional communication is to convince customer to make a decision in favor of the specific organization that make benefit the marketer or organization. There would be certain objective of promotion communication. Build Awareness Create Interest Provide Information Stimulate Demand Reinforce the Brand

Build Awareness New products and new companies are

often unknown to a market, which means initial promotional efforts must focus on establishing an identity. In this situation the marketer must focus promotion to activity such as : (1)marketer must reach among the ultimate customers with help of available medium of promotion. (2) tell the market who they are and what they have to offer.

Create Interest Moving a customer from awareness of a

product to making a purchase can present a significant challenge. consumer and business buying behavior, customers must first recognize they have a need before they actively start to consider a purchase. The focus on creating messages that convince customers that a need exists has been the hallmark of marketing for a long time with promotional appeals targeted at basic human characteristics such as emotions, fears, sex, and humor.

Provide Information Some promotion is designed to

assist customers in the search stage of the purchasing process. In some cases, such as when a product is so novel it creates a new category of product and has few competitors, the information is simply intended to explain what the product is and may not mention any competitors. In other situations, where the product competes in an existing market, informational promotion may be used to help with a product positioning strategy.

Stimulate Demand The right promotion can drive

customers to make a purchase. In the case of products that a customer has not previously purchased or has not purchased in a long time, the promotional efforts may be directed at getting the customer to try the product. This is often seen on the Internet where software companies allow for free demonstrations or even free downloadable trials of their products. For products with an established customerbase, promotion can encourage customers to increase their purchasing by providing a reason to purchase products sooner or purchase in greater quantities than they normally do. For example, A software companies first demonstrate the Anti-virus trial version through direct mail fall into customer mail box and once customer download so the customer drive is increased and sell its final product.

Reinforce the Brand Once a purchase is made, a

marketer can use promotion to help build a strong relationship that can lead to the purchaser becoming a loyal customer. For instance, many retail stores now ask for a customers email address so that follow-up emails containing additional product information or even an incentive to purchase other products from the retailer can be sent in order to strengthen the customer-marketer relationship.

Factor influencing promotional mix

Budget available Stage in product life cycle Type of product Type of purchase decision Target market character tics Consumer readiness to purchases Consumer preference for various media Regulation, competitors and environment factor

Availability of media
Push versus pull strategy

Factor that influence of promotional mix

Budget available:- the available budget is the important factor

that influence of promotional mix. If any small organization in the worth and uses the promotional mix element so the available budget may be big constraint or hindrance for the small organization, other sides any big organization like reliance may uses all the element of promotional mix so the influence over the consumer can be seen easily. Stage in the product life cycle:- The stage in the product life cycle also affects the type and amount of promotion used. Products in the introductory stages typically need a lot more promotional dollars to create awareness in the marketplace. Imagine how much more fuel an airplane needs for takeoff than it needs once it is in the air. The same is true of communication. More fuel is needed in the beginning to help with the takeoff.

Type of product and type of purchase decision:- Different

products also require different types of promotion. Very technical products and very expensive products often need personal selling so the customer understands how the product operates and its different features. By contrast, advertising assist to increase the awareness among the customer. Target market characteristics and consumers readiness to purchase :- In order to select the best method to reach their target market(s), organizations must also understand how ready different target markets are to make purchases. For example, some people are early adopters and want to try new things as soon as they are available, and other groups wait until products have been on the market for a while. Some consumers might not have the money to purchase different products, although they will need the product later.

Consumers preferences for various media:- Weve

already explained that different types of consumers prefer different types of media. In terms of target markets, as we mentioned, college-aged students prefer online, cell phone, and social media more than older consumers do. Regulations (law with in country) factors:- Regulations can affect the type of promotion used. For example, laws in the United States prohibit tobacco products from being advertised on television. In some Asian countries, controversial products such as alcohol cannot be advertised during Golden (prime) time on television. The hope is that by advertising late at night, young children do not see the advertisements.

Availability of media :- Organizations must also plan

their promotions based on availability of media. For example, when a disaster occurs, TV stations often cut advertisements to make way for continuous news coverage. If there is a crisis or disaster and your company is in the middle of a promotion being advertised on TV, you will likely have to scramble to reach consumers via another medium. Push versus pull strategy :- Businesses must also decide whether to use a push strategy, a pull strategy, or both push and pull strategies.

Push strategy:- A strategy in which businesses are targeted of

promotions so products get pushed through their marketing channels and sold to consumers. involves promoting a product to middlemen, such as wholesalers and retailers, who then promote the product to consumers. Manufacturers may set up displays in retail outlets for new products so the retailer can promote the product to consumers.
Pull strategy :- A strategy in which consumers are targeted with

sales promotions such as coupons, contests, games, rebates, mail-in offers. involves promoting a product to final consumers. For example, a manufacturer promotes its new product on television to consumers and places coupons in the newspaper inserts to get the consumers demanding the product. Their pull causes wholesalers and retailers to buy the product to try to meet their demand. Many manufacturers use both a push strategy and a pull strategy.

Promotional planning process

Assess Marketing Communication Opportunities

What Communication Channels Will You Use

Determine Your Objectives

Determine Your Promotion Mix

Determine Campaign Effectiveness

Develop the Promotion Budget

Develop Your Promotional Message

Step 1: Assess Marketing Communication Opportunities:

It's important in this first step to examine and understand the needs of your target market. Who would be prospect customer, whom would be targeted by you, Current users, influencers among individuals, decision-makers, groups, or the general public?
Step 2: What Communication Channels should be used: In

the first step of planning you should have defined the markets, products, and environments. This information will assist you in deciding which communication channels will be most beneficial. Will you use personal communication channels such as face to face meeting, telephone contact, or perhaps a personal sales presentation? Or will the non personal communication such as newspapers, magazines, or direct mail work better?

Step 3: Determine Your Objectives :

Promotional objectives should be stated in terms of long or short-term behaviors of people, in respect of available product and service. These objectives must be clearly stated, measurable, and appropriate to the phase of market development. Step 4: Determine Your Promotion Mix : This is where you will need to allocate resources among sales promotion, advertising, publicity, and of course personal selling. You must create an awareness among your buyers in order for your promotional campaign to succeed. A well rounded promotion will use all of these methods in some capacity.

Step 5: Develop Your Promotional Message: This is the

time that you will need to sit down with your team and focus on the content, appeal, structure, format, and source of the message. Keep in mind in promotional campaigns appeal and execution always work together. Step 6: Develop the Promotion Budget: This is the exciting part. You must now determine the total promotion budget. This involves determining cost breakdowns per territory and promotional mix elements. Take some time to break down allocations and determine the affordability, percent of sales, and competitive parity. By breaking down these costs you will get a better idea of the success potential of your campaign.

Step 7: Determine Campaign Effectiveness : After

assigning marketing communication, the promotional plan must be formal defined in a written document. In this document you should include situation analysis, copy ads, timetables for effective integration of promotional elements with elements in your marketing mix.

Situation analysis
In order to profitably satisfy customer needs, the firm first

must understand its external and internal situation, including the customer, the market environment, and the firm's own capabilities. A situation analysis is the 5 C Analysis. The 5C analysis is an environmental scan on five key areas especially applicable to marketing decisions. It covers the internal, the micro-environmental, and the macro-environmental situation.


Product line 2. Image in the market 3. Technology and experience 4. Culture 5. Goals Collaborators 1. Distributors 2. Suppliers 3. Or other Alliances

Customers 1. Market size and growth 2. Market segments 3. Benefits that consumer is seeking, tangible and intangible. 4. Decision maker or decision-making unit 5. Retail channel - where does the consumer actually purchase the product?

1. 2.

4. 5. 6.

Competitors Actual or potential Direct or indirect Products Positioning Market shares Strengths and weaknesses of competitors

Climate (or context)

The climate or macro-environmental factors are: 2. Political & regulatory environment - governmental policies and regulations that affect the market 3. Economic environment - business cycle, inflation rate, interest rates, and other macroeconomic issues 4. Social/Cultural environment - society's trends and fashions 5. Technological environment - new knowledge that makes possible new ways of satisfying needs; the impact of technology on the demand for existing products.

Communication process