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Anthropological Foundation of Education

Rhea Angel

Anthropology
Greek word Anthrope - man + logy study= Science of man/ study of mankind

-science that treats the origin, development (physical, intellectual, moral, etc.) and particularly the cultural development, customs, beliefs, etc of man.

Branches of Anthropology
Anthropology
Physical anthropolog y Man as biological animal

Cultural anthropology
Linguistic s (Analysis of Language )

Arch aeolo gy

Ethnology Peoples cultures and Behaviours Social Anthropolog y


(Development of scientific generalizations about a culture, society or personality in a

Ethnology
(Scientific description and classifications of racial groups of mankind)

Of What use is Anthropology?


Reduces ethnocentrism

Contributes to education
Programs of aid in the military, economic and political fields are evaluated through

Cultural Anthropology
Focused on the study of cultural variation among humans, collecting data about the impact of global economic and political processes on local cultural realities. deals with mans behavior and with ways human beings carry out the activities of daily living. The diversity of human behavior is seen in: food habits, ways food is cooked, habits of dress and ornaments and relations with in-laws

culture
Dressler- a social heritage, transmitted from one generation to another and shared. Consists of the sum total skills, beliefs, knowledge, arts, laws, morals, customs and products that are commonly shared by a number of people and transmitted to their children.

a. Dynamism Static-Emphasizes cultural transmission


Eg. The same culture is passed from one generation to generation

Dynamic- emphasizes change


It goes through revision with each generation

b.

Characteristics

Learned- because of our intellect and will


Varied- Because our social and physical nature varies from one place to another.
Group product because culture consists of group habits

Transmitted- because we are heir to our social tradition

c. Stability

stable

Culture is satisfying the group


If culture doesnt satisfy the group when violent conflict occurs before changes are made

unstable

d. Form

Material Non material

tangible House, tools etc.


symbolic Folkways,custo ms, sentiments, mores

e. Components

Values
Idea of right of wrong

Beliefs
View of reality shared by a group

Behaviours
Are observable patterns of behavior

Norms
Range of permissible behaviour established by the group

f.

Functions of culture

Communication
Value standards

Approved behaviours
Survival skills and knowledge

Identity and belonging

g. Universal pattern

For example emotions and emotional expressions are common across all cultures so we all cry when we are sad and laugh when we are happy. We also have common attitudes and opinions such as supportive views towards honesty and we universally detest crime.

Universal pattern

Language and Speech


Keesing - language is a vocal symbolism of speech, with its related bodily gestures and mechanical signals which give precision and finesse to communication. Beals and Hoijer - a way of speaking, distinct in every culture.

Universal pattern

Language and speech


Total languages spoken bet. 120-175. We have 80 languages which are Malayo Polynesian Language (southeast asia)-Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, etc.

Since 1938, our government had established a national language which is Tagalog. English is still our universal language.
50% of the population speaks English and a native language while for the educated Filipino, it is common to be trilingual.

Art [dance/music/literature]

Universal pattern

Art serves as a medium for the communication of ideas, attitudes and values. Art conserves and reinforces beliefs, customs, attitudes and values. The religious art in the architecture of churches, the religious scenes, and the images of saints create emotional and intellectual atmosphere needed for religious exercises.

Universal pattern

Art
Literature is small but of high quality. Some early literature are destroyed because

They were burned They were written by the early on easy materials Spanish friars such as branch of because of the woods, stones, idea that they leaves, and etc... were works of evil.

Universal pattern

technology

Other Pre-Spanish Filipino industries included the manufacture of liquors and vinegars like tuba, basi, etc, export of edible bird's nests from Northern Palawan to China, the raising and trade of civet cats, the manufacture of gunpowder, the making of wax for export to China, and the making of cotton stockings for export.

Universal pattern

Technology
increase in the use of new information technologies in education and training stands out in the Philippines. The computer technology is used to add a fun-element to education. And it goes without saying that the Internet has endowed education with interactivity.

Universal pattern

Property System

This promotes conflict between the rich and the poor

Universal pattern

warfare
Examples:

Execution of the 3 friars (GUMBURZA)


KATIPUNAN by Andres Bonifacio

Universal pattern

Mythology and Science


Myths and rituals are mostly influenced by the Indians, such Bathala and Mariyang Makiling. In 1865, studies of tropical typhoons started in Manila In 1937, the national research council of the Philippines explored the physical, biological and social sciences.

Universal pattern

Family and Society


Marriage is seen to be sacred The Barangay, which is the smallest unit of social and political organization is being led by the Maharlika or Datu, Nobleman or close relatives of the chief.

Supernatural BeliefsUniversal (and pattern Religion)

animism Prayer shamans

Mana Magic priest

Universal pattern

Political System

Long ago, it was a gobernacion or a territory administered by a governor while the church as a patronato real meaning they are led by a royal patronage.

Historical foundation of education in relation to Political System

Political system

Pre-spanish period
Pre-Spanish Period- The early Filipinos considered education as a way to preserve their culture and transmit this knowledge to future generations. -education was informal and unstructured babaylan posses wisdom and knowledge in spirituality and system of governing their own society -children were provided with vocational training and less academics by parents and houses of tribal tutors

Political system

Spanish Regime
Schools were established with the objective of rearing children to learn skills acquired by the youth in Spain. The educational system was under the control of the Roman Catholic Church. education was religion-centered -education for the elite only - Spanish is compulsory - Boys and girls school are separated - Inadequate, suppressed and controlled Priests-educators

Political system

Thomasites/American Era
Education was a means by which people can be oriented toward a democratic way of life, they made education accessible to all. American teachers US civilian and professional citizens- thomasites - free and compulsory elementary - English is the medium of instruction - 600 teachers from USA taught in Philippines

Political system

Filipinization of Instruction
-Commonwealth era free public school system - assignment of Filipino secretary for department of Instruction

Japanese Educational Policies

Political system

Education was an instrument for Filipinos to embrace Japanese ideologies. It promoted vocational education and inspired people with the spirit of labor creation of ministry of education - teaching of Tagalog, Phil. History and Character Education

Political system

TRIFOCAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM


- DECS (Elementary and High School) - CHED Higher Education - TESDA Technology Based Education

Cultural implications on Education


Cultures differ and one should not judge another culture by using his own culture as basis. Travel, education, and reading about other societies are ways of bringing about tolerance and understanding between nations. With more diffusion between cultures, one global society may result. Unity in spite of diversity

Cultural implications on Education


Since culture is made by man himself, he should develop worthwhile values and weed out those beliefs, mores, superstitions, etc. that are detrimental to progress. Since culture changes, the change should be for the better and society should decide what those changes should be. The home, the school and the church should guard against borrowing from other cultures things that are against the

Technology on education
The contemporary teacher must be familiar with the new educational technologies for delivering quality teaching Educational technology can benefit our country in enhancing education through providing assistance to students learning, teacher productivity and by making schools more effective instruments of change.

Implication of language and speech to education


A major tool to learning and basic requirement to interpersonal relationships. Means of preserving cultural heritage. Criterion that differentiates the educated from the uneducated. The more languages a person knows, the better educated he is and the easier he can adjust to other people.

Thank you!!!