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Incident ?

An abnormal event, not wanted, that result from an abrupt, unexpected and accidental form that interrupts the normal continuity of the work (Baselga 1984). Standard UNE 81900 explains an incident as undesired or unwanted that given rise to losses in the health of injuries of the worker. An incident could have resulted in a serious accident or injury (Senecal & Burke). An incident could result in damage to property or equipment and it could result


Krause & Hidley (1992) found that the difference between inccident and accident: 1. needing only first aid verses a major medical intervention. 2. owed in a certain way, to the factor of luck near miss. Conclusion : Incident is a fact or event not planned nor wanted that will occasionally result in an unintentional injury or health related problems, will occasionally result in damages to property, products or to the enviroment, loss of production

Types Of Incident
Type 5 The incident can be handled with one or two single resources with up to six personnel. Command and General Staff positions (other than the Incident Commander) are not activated. No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required. The incident is contained within the first operational period and often within an hour to a few hours after resources arrive on scene.

Type 4 Command staff and general staff functions are activated only if needed. Several resources are required to mitigate the incident. The incident is usually limited to one operational period in the control phase. The agency administrator may have briefings, and ensure the complexity analysis and delegation of authority are updated. No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required but a documented operational briefing will be completed for all incoming resources. The role of the agency administrator includes operational plans including objectives and

Type 3 When capabilities exceed initial attack, the appropriate ICS positions should be added to match the complexity of the incident. Some or all of the Command and General Staff positions may be activated, as well as Division/Group Supervisor and/or Unit Leader level positions. A Type 3 Incident Management Team (IMT) or incident command organization manages initial action incidents with a significant number of resources, an extended attack incident until containment/control is achieved, or an expanding incident until transition to a Type 1 or 2 team. The incident may extend into multiple operational periods. A written IAP may be required for each operational period.

Type 2 This type of incident extends beyond the capabilities for local control and is expected to go into multiple operational periods. A Type 2 incident may require the response of resources out of area, including regional and/or national resources, to effectively manage the operations, command, and general staffing. Most or all of the Command and General Staff positions are filled. A written IAP is required for each operational period. Many of the functional units are needed and staffed. Operations personnel normally do not exceed 200 per operational period and total incident personnel do not exceed 500 (guidelines only).

Type 1 This type of incident is the most complex, requiring national resources to safely and effectively manage and operate. All Command and General Staff positions are activated. Operations personnel often exceed 500 per operational period and total personnel will usually exceed 1,000. Branches need to be established. The agency administrator will have briefings, and ensure that the complexity analysis and delegation of authority are updated. Use of resource advisors at the incident base is recommended. There is a high impact on the local jurisdiction, requiring additional staff for office administrative and support functions.

Unsafe Act
Performance of a task or other activity that is conducted in a manner that may threaten the health and/or safety of workers. Examples are : Operating without qualification or authorization. Operating equipment at unsafe . Failure to warn. Using defective equipment Working in hazardous locations without adequate protection or warning. Wearing unsafe clothing.

Unsafe Conditions
A condition in the work place that is likely to cause property damage or injury. Examples are : Defective tools, equipment, or supplies. Fire and explosion hazards. Inadequate supports or guards. Poor housekeeping. Hazardous atmospheric condition. Excessive noise. Poor ventilation.

Hazard ?

Hazard A source or a situation with a potential for harm to humans, property and damage of environment or a combination of these. Danger Relative exposure to hazard. Risk A combination of likelihood of occurrence and severity of injury or damage.

Classification & Potential Sources of Hazards

Classification Example of Hazards Mechanical - Sharp points & edges, overload. Electrical - Insulation damaged or cover broken Biological - Exposed, airborne/blood borne microorganism. - Expose to carcinogens

Chemical chemical Ergonomics - Expose to unnatural postures

Hazard Identification

To keep workplace safe and healthy. -employers should make sure there are no hazards to which employees could be exposed. Employers should look for hazards in advance as part of their risk management plan to prevent potential hazards.

The Process of Risk Management

Classify Activities (Work, Product, Services) Identify Hazard Assess The Risk Risk Control Review Risk Control

Identify Hazards
1. 2.




Walk around your workplace and look at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm. Ask your employees or their representatives what they think. They may have noticed things that are not immediately obvious to you. Check manufacturers instructions or data sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazards and putting them in their true perspective. Have a look back at your accident and illhealth records these often help to identify the less obvious hazards. Remember to think about long-term hazards to health (eg high levels of noise or exposure to harmful substances) as well as safety hazards.

Risk Assessment

Is the process of evaluating the risk to safety & health from hazards at work

Types - Qualitative - Semi-quantitative - Quantitative

How To Assess Risk

1) Look for the Hazards 2) Decide who might be harmed & how 3) Evaluate the risk and check what is done to prevent it from happening 4) Record finding 5) Review assessment and revise

Types of Risk Assessment

Qualitative - (Use Risk Matrix) -table scales for likelihood and severity Fatality Major injuries Minor injuries First aid or near misses

Types of Risk Assessment

Based on statistic Likelihood Very likely Likely Unlikely Highly Unlikely

Qualitative Risk Table

Severity V/Likely Likelihood Likely Unlikely High High Mediu m Mediu m High Medium Medium Low H/Unlikely Medium Medium Low Low Fatality High Major High Injuries Minor High Injuries First Aid/ Medium N/misse s

Semi-Quantitative Risk


Severity Categories 1. First Aid 2. Less than 4 days M/C 3. More than 4 days M/C 4. Fatality & Permanent Disability

Semi-Quantitative Risk

Likelihood Occurrence 1. Yearly 2. Monthly 3. Weekly 4. Daily


Semi-Quantitative Risk Table

Yearly 1 First Aid < 4 Days MC > 4 Days MC Fatality & Permanent Disability 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Monthl y 2 2 4 6 8 Weekl y 3 3 6 9 12 Daily 4 4 8 12 16

Quantitative Risk Assessment

In cases where hazards are numerous and complex eg; Chemical process plant Should have Job Safety Analysis (JSA) - describe job in less than 10 steps - List things that can go wrong

eg; Changing a Car Wheel

Actions & Recommendations

ELEliminate SLSubstitute ISIsolation ECEngineering Control AC Administration Control PPEPersonal Protection Equipment

Actions & Recommendations

Eg; EL - stop work, cover hazard SL - use other route, other material.. IS - put up temporary barrier, EC - construct permanent wall,.. AC - put up notice, job rotation, PPE - gloves, respirator,