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Human Computer Interface

Introduction Principle and Guidelines

Design Process
Dialog Notation Implementation support Inter Active Devices Documentation

Computer supported cooperation

Information search and visualization

Chapter 1: Human Factors of Interactive Software

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Goals of System Engineering
Steps For User-interface Engineering

1.3 System - User Interface Design Goals

1.4 Motivations for Human Factors in Design

1.5 Accommodation of Human Diversity
Physical abilities and physical workplaces

Cognitive and perceptual abilities

1.6 Goals for Our Profession

User Interfaces Are Products of Interdisciplinary Work What are the Business Ramifications?

Individual User Level International Influences

User Interface Engineering

Success requires commitment from designers and managers
Task analysis to ensure proper functionality Generally alternatives must be compared

Reliability, Availability, Security, and Data Integrity

User Interface Engineering

Standardization, Integration, Consistency, and Portability
Schedules and Budgets

System - User Interface Design Goals

Define the target user community associated with the interface Communities evolve and change

System - User Interface Design Goals

5 human factors central to community evaluation:
1. Time to learn 2. Speed of performance

3. Rate of errors by users

4. Retention over time 5. Subjective satisfaction

Trade-offs sometimes necessary Test all design alternatives using mock-ups

Motivations for Human Factors in Design

1.Life-critical systems
2.Industrial and commercial uses

Motivations for Human Factors in Design

3. Office, home, and entertainment applications
4. Exploratory, creative, and cooperative systems

Accommodation of Human Diversity

Physical abilities and physical workplaces

Cognitive and perceptual abilities Personality differences Cultural and international diversity Users with disabilities

Elderly Users

Physical Abilities and Physical Workplaces

There is no average user
Human dimensions/static measures

Take into account dynamic measures such as reach, strength or speed Account for variances in sense perception
Vision Touch-keyboard,touchscreen Hearing

Workplace design can both help in work performance

Cognitive and Perceptual Abilities

Cognitive processes
Short term & working Memory, Long term and Semantic memory, problem solving , decision making , search and scanning , time perception

factors affecting perceptual and motor performance

alertness , tiredness , sensory deprivation

sleep deprivation , aging

Dullness, Drug. Smoking Alcohol


Personality Differences
There is no set of classification for identifying user personality types Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - 4 different dichotomies extroversion versus introversion sensing versus intuition (good at precision vs good at solving new problems) perceptive versus judging (delay decisions to take in new data vs quick to make decisions) feeling versus thinking

Cultural and International Diversity

special characters Left-to-right versus right-to-left Date and time formats Numeric and currency formats Weights and measures Telephone numbers and addresses Names and titles (Mr., Ms., Mme.) ID numbers Capitalization and punctuation Sorting sequences

Icons, buttons, colors

Pluralization, grammar, spelling Etiquette, policies, tone, formality, metaphors

Users With Disabilities

Sight, hearing, mobility
Plan early to accommodate Americans With Disabilities Act

Elderly Users
Forgotten by largely young technologists
Fast growing segment in US Provide variability

1.6 Goals for Our Profession

Influencing academic and industrial researchers

Potential research topics Providing tools, techniques, and knowledge for system implementers Raising the computer consciousness of the general public

End Chapter 1