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Special Education

A program for children with special needs. Designed for children who are unable to understand the normal education program and might become drop outs from schools. Factors like prenatal development, sickness, food nutrients or drug may contribute to the disabilities of the children.

Physical Disability

Refers to neurological disability affecting the brain and defect at the nervous system(Mohd Sharani , 2006). It is also about orthopedic problems that involves the bone, joint and muscles. These special children face problems like stiff joints and lack of coordinations.

Implications

The use of book holders or electronic text book can help them. Use computers or special pen and pencil to complete tasks that involves writings. Teachers must know the knowledge of how to help these pupils when they are in trouble.

Visual Problems

Children with these problems have limited sight. Parents can detect it when the infant does not make eye contact. Can be detected through their facial responses. Children with these problems usually have less facial expressions. Children may have squinted eyes and sometimes shuts one eye in order to see. They always complain of headaches and holds reading materials close to the eyes to read.

Implications

Prepare reading materials with bigger printed words and substantiate with audio materials. Give attention to the classroom arrangement and allow them to get used to it, so they will have easier movement and be able to reach their reading and learning materials. Reading materials must be clear with proper word, size, colours, background and must not consist of many word in one page.

Hearing Problems

Two types of hearing problems-deaf and partially deaf. Children with hearing problem usually have difficulty in spelling or pronunciation because they face difficulties in developing their speech or reading. They need to have early training in special schools to prepare them to have normal life like other children.

Implications

Do not turn your back to these children when giving instructions. The environment must be free from noise and disturbances. Avoid yelling or speaking loudly Use sign language

Learning Disabilities

May exhibit characteristics like poor coordination, repetitive movement, poor memory and slow in learning. Cannot understand lessons taught using normal techniques. Children with dyslexia have problems have problems in reading and writing. They prefer reading from right to left with alphabets such as b being read or written as d.

Implication

Use simple language. Instruction must be clear and repeated. Teaching and learning strategy can be modified to help increase confidence and achievement such as asking a dyslexic child to write a report. The assignment and homework given weekly can be pasted on the notice board and one copy can be given to the parents.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD)

These children cannot maintain concentration and face difficulty in completing task and have poor memory. They always interrupt conversation or even say something without thinking. Teachers guide the children to control their behavior when they are able to have the childrens attention.

Implications

The objective of teaching and learning process must be stated clearly. Use concrete examples. Short and repetitive instructions. Relate learning with daily experiences. Teaching must be structured. Give simple task.