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USIT Log features USIT Microdebonding

What to look for in a USIT log

February-2003 Javier Peyrire

T able of contents
Table of Contents Common formats Cement evaluation examples
Good Cement Mud Channel Traces of Cement Cement and Squeeze Light Cement Wet Microannulus

2 3 5
5 6 7 8 9 10

USIT Image Interpretation and guide Other Effects (examples)


Casing shape and wear Third Interface reflection Centralizers

11 13
14 18 19

To Remember about USIT Microdebonding


Background Information Examples Theory and algorithm Examples of microdebonded logs Limitations and advice

20 21
22 24 28 31 35

To remember about Microdebonding Microdebonding References

37 38

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USI combined casing + cement presentation


QC Casing Cement

Channel

Bond index
Cement raw Thickness image Thickness Internal radius Casing cross-section Amplitude Processing flags Eccentering, CCL, gamma Ray
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Cement interpreted

USI + CBL/VDL cement presentation


QC CBL USI VDL

CBL

VDL Bond index Acoustic impedance Cement image interpreted CBL, Gamma Ray Process flags, eccentering

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Good cement
CBL flat, low

Mean AI 8 MRayl

Weak casing arrival

Strong formation arrival

QC

CBL

USI

VDL

The AI value depends on the type of cement


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Mud channel and contaminated cement


CBL variable, high
Strong casing arrival Weak formation arrival

Channel

Low-Z cement

QC

CBL

USI

VDL

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Partial cementation
Weak formation arrival CBL flat, high Strong casing arrival

Traces of contaminated cement

QC

CBL

USI

VDL

Patches of cement within fluid


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Channel and Squeeze


Channel After squeeze

Perfs

USI

CBL

USI

BI

VDL

USI

BI

VDL

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Light cement top


Low impedance
0-4 MRayl scale shows contrast between light cement and liquid

Liquid/solid threshold set low (2.1) for light cement


CBL agrees with USI

0 100

0-4 Threshold MRayl 2.1 MRayl

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Wet microannulus
USI is weakly affected CBL reads near free pipe

Strong, regular casing arrival High CBL

Uniform medium-Z USI

USI

BI

VDL

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USI image interpretation


High Z

Patchy
Gas

Cement
Liquid Medium Microdebonded Cement Light or contam. Cement Cement data Mud channel Mud layer + cement Dry microannulus (Debond) Extended

Localised

Gas entry if gas zone Narrow

Gas channel

Squeeze

No Squeeze
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USI and CBL/VDL guide


USI
Resolution Well bonded cement Very light cement Dry microann. Debonded cement Wet microann. Mud layer Contaminated cement Mixed lead/tail cement Mud channel Gas channel 0.6 in to 1.2 in. Cement Low contrast [special processing if debonded] Dry microann. /gas (special processing) Slightly affected Channel Low-Z cement Mixed lead/tail Channel Gas channel

CBL/VDL
360 deg. x 3 ft Cement Low contrast from mud Good/fair bond

Ambiguous Ambiguous Ambiguous Ambiguous Ambiguous Cement/ambiguou s VDL qualitative Strongly affected

Formation bond Not seen Outer casing/ hard formation Casing condition Mud attenuation Third interface arrival (not affected) Very sensitive

Slightly sensitive

< 12 dB/cm/MHZ

No strict limit

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Other effects
Casing effects Third arrival effects (formation) Centralizers effect

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Casing shape effects


Manufacturing patterns often affect cement image slightly Does not affect interpretation
Am p Int rad. Cement

Formation reflections
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Poor casing condition affects cement evaluation


Processing flags Echo amplitude shows rugosity Red Gas indications

QC

Casing

Cement

Processing flags and amplitude image show that gas indications are an artifact of internal rugosity
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Casing wear can affect cement image


Drill pipe wear creates false channel

Wear groove

False channel

QC

Casing

Cement

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Deformed casing
Deformed casing can cause lost echoes and tool eccentering. Even the eccentering curve becomes false. The log must be repeated with a wider Window acquisition window.
Echoes outside acquisition window

Max/min TT Eccentering

TT histogram

Lost echoes

QC

Casing

Cement

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ThirdNarrow interface reflections


side of annulus

Channel Galaxy pattern

Int. radius

Thickness

Cement

Typical galaxy patterns: interference between casing resonance and reflections from outer casing (here) or hard formation. In this example, it shows good cement except in free pipe when the casing is close to the formation
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Centralizers and good cement


USI usually sees centralizers Important to verify if casing properly centralized
Casing joint

Centralizer

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To remember about USIT


USIT-CBL together: gives an answer for most of the cases The casing condition will affect the log The cement quality is evaluated real time

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USIT Micro-debonding

Introduction, description, advice

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Background information
USIT gives a value of the Acoustic Impedance (AI) of the media behind the casing In general:
AI gas < 0.3 MRay AI liquid < 2.6 Mray (water around 1.5M ray) AI conventional cement > 2.6 MRay AI light cement, foam cement often < 2.6 MRay

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Presentation
Presence of low impedance (gas or liquid range) spots/areas within the cement Multiple reasons (mixed with gas, fluid, temperature effects when hardening, light cement, foamed cement)

Act as a barrier to ultrasound


Patchy cement aspect, low bond etc

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Example 1: patchy cement


Raw BI Interp

Patchy gas/ cement indicates micro-debonded cement (patchy dry micro-annulus)

Patches of Gas and Liquid

Patches of Good cement

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Example 2: Extended dry microannulus


Debonded Cement
Raw BI Interp

Debonding can be extensive with low impedance variability and not associated with gas entry
Extended debond (reading gas)

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Example 3: Gas Micrannulus


Raw BI Interp

Gas coming to surface of old storage well Old CBL showed almost 100%bond
Narrow gas channel Gas microannulus Good cement

New USI showed areas of debond (gas microannulus)

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Micro-debond on USI and CBL


CBL less affected than USI without pressure
USI and CBL improve with pressure
Without pressure CBL With pressure

USI

USI

BI

VDL

USI

BI

VDL

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Theory or Hypothesis
Gas and liquids have a homogeneous AI within the same medium Solids have a more heterogeneous AI repartition (Variable cement impedance is indicative of solids) Cement is a solid (when hardened) By comparing the AI of neighbouring points we can determine if it is a solid or a fluid

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Micro-debonded cement processing


Vertical Deviation

Transducer spot size

Diagonal 1

Horizontal Deviation

Diagonal 2

If all 4 standard deviations > set thresholds

Data point is considered to be locally debonded


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Micro-debond logic
Pixel Z AI Thresholds Micro-debonding algorithm

Cement

Liquid
< Thresh

OR > Thresh

Micro-D Gas
<Thresh

OR > Thresh

Micro-D

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USI micro-debond logic


Classifies patchy low-impedance material as micro-debonded cement Helps interpretation of light and foam cement Low Formation
Micro-debond presentation

Conventional

CBL

arrivals

BI

Map

BI

Map

CBL

VDL

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Micro-debond logic example


Automatically classifies patchy low-impedance material as micro-debonded cement

CBL

BI

Map

CBL
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VDL

LiteCRETE 12 ppg cement


Gas entry from known gas zone Micro-debond logic shows cement is present

CBTBI

Debond logic

Threshol d map

BI

VDL

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LiteCRETE Gasblok 10.3 ppg


Micro-debond logic shows cement is present

CB TBI

Raw map

BI

Debond logic

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USI micro-debond logic limitations


Does not work with extended dry debond (gas microannulus)
Empirical threshold Need to tune threshold sometimes Can indicate debonding in a channel due to casing shape effects.

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Logging advice
Normal cement Log with micro-debonding off Play-back with micro-debonding on if bad bond. Light/Foam Cement (low Acoustic Impedance) Log with micro-debonding on Play-back with micro debonding off to see the AI map (not hidden by the green micro-debonding flag)
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To remember
Act as a barrier to ultrasound Vocabulary: Microdebond is the same as dry microannulus, gas microannulus or dry debond Indicates solid cement Often occur without gas entry even in double casing strings due to pressure or temperature changes Gas entry should only be suspected if in known gas zone, gas injector well near, or gas at surface

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References
Microdebonding: what is it and does it provide hydraulic isolation?, Andrew Hayman 29 Nov. 2001 SPE 55649, Assessment of Foamed Cement Slurries Using Conventional Cement Evaluation Logs and Improved Interpretation Methods from Gary J. Frisch, William L. Graham and James Griffith (SPE, Halliburton) SPE 19538, Guidelines for Ultrasonic Cement-Sheath Evaluation from K. J. Goodwin (SPE, Mobil) Overcoming Interpretation Problems of GasContaminated Cement Using Ultrasonic Cement Logs from R.J. Butsch (SPE, Schlumberger) The Evaluation of Specialized Cements from R.J. Butsch et al. (SPE, Schlumberger)

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