Anda di halaman 1dari 38

Mills, G. E. (2003). Action Research: A guide for the teacher researcher, 2nd ed.

Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall.

is systematic inquiry done by teachers (or other individuals in the teaching/learning environment) to gather information aboutand subsequently improve- how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how well their students learn.

Chapter 1: Understanding Action Research

Action Research
Focus Area
Data Collection Data Analysis & Interpretation

Teaching
Objectives

Implement lesson Reflect on whether students achieved objectives Reflect on Lesson Reflect on how todays lesson affects tomorrows lesson

Action Planning

The Dialectic Action Research Plan


Mills, G. E. (2003). Action Research: A guide for the teacher researcher, 2nd ed. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Identify an Area of Focus

Develop an Action Plan

Collect Data

Analyze and Interpret Data

Steps to Planning an Action Research Project


To Do: 1. Select an appropriate area of focus. 2. Do reconnaissance. 3. Review related literature. 4. Write and research plan to guide your work.

1. Criteria for Selecting a General Idea/Area of Focus:


Take a statement/observation and turn it into a Research Question. It should
Involve teaching and learning and should focus on your own practice
Be something within your locus of control

Be something you feel passionate about


Be something you would like to change or improve

Steps to create a good Area of Focus


Identify a problem or situation you would like to change or improve.
Example: My ESL students dont like to read in English.

Turn that problem into a question.*


Example: What reading strategies can a ESL teacher use to motivate her students to enjoy reading in English? * This question will guide your reconnaissance and eventually your development of final research questions.

2. Reconnaissance
Explore your own understanding of your Area of Focus.

Write a Reflective Memo

3. Review of Related Literature


Search for others theories and research on your topic. Write a Theoretical Framework of theories that support your study. Write a Literature Review of research studies that pertain to your study.

4. Create a Research Plan:


A research plan summarizes your action research thoughts in a plan that will guide you through your classroom research work.

Steps for writing a good Research Plan


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Write (re-write) an area-of-focus statement Define variables Develop research questions Describe the intervention or innovations Describe the membership of the action research group 6. Describe negotiations that need to be undertaken 7. Develop a timeline 8. Develop a statement of resources 9. Develop data collection ideas 10.Develop a triangulation matrix

Step 1: Area of Focus Statement


An Area of Focus Statement
Defines the purpose of your study Identifies the variables that you will study
* In the following samples of Area of Focus Statements, try to identify 1.The structure and key words 2.The variables

Samples: Area of Focus Statements

What do these have in common?


1. The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of an integrated problem-solving mathematics curriculum on student transfer of problem-solving skills and the retention of basic math facts and functions.

2.

The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of bringing audience members into an interactive relationship with teen theater productions on participants abilities to identify issues and incorporate solutions to similar problems in their own lives.
The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of student-led conferences on parent and student satisfaction with the conferencing process.

3.

Area of Focus Statement


Key words

The purpose of this study is to


describe the effects of on

describe the impact of on

Step 2: Define the Variables


A Variable Is a characteristic of your study that is subject to change.

In the following samples of Area of Focus Statements, try to 1. Identify the variables 2.Notice how specifically they are written

Samples: Area of Focus Statements/Variables

What are the variables?


1. The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of an integrated problem-solving mathematics curriculum on student transfer of problem-solving skills and the retention of basic math facts and functions.

2.

The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of bringing audience members into an interactive relationship with teen theater productions on participants abilities to identify issues and incorporate solutions to similar problems in their own lives.
The purpose of this study is to describe the effects of student-led conferences on parent and student satisfaction with the conferencing process.

3.

Define the Variables


Write definitions of what you will really focus on in the study.
Make definitions clear and specific to your study. Think. What does the variable LOOK like? How will I know it when I see it?

TITLE:__________________________ AUTHOR: __________________ Educational Problem: It

The problem is

is not known if the software program students use in the lab is actually effective in improving the pronunciation skills of basic level ESL students.
Research Question: Are

the CALL program Tell Me More effective in improving the pronunciation skills of Basic ESL students?
1. Area-of-focus statement: The purpose of this study isto

turned into a question and turned into an Area of Focus statement.

find out the effectiveness of the program Tell Me More in improving the pronunciation skills of basic level ESL students.
2.

Variable

Definition (within study)

Effectiveness of program

If the students pronunciation improves after they use the software, according to the softwares analysis and students own opinions of their improvement. Software program designed to help ESL students individually improve their English pronunciation through.

Tell Me More program

Variables are determined and defined according to the study.

Pronunciation skills

The ability to create the sounds of words in English gets better (according to the

Step 3: Develop Research Questions


Research Questions are Specific questions that guide and focus your research.
* In the following sample of a Research Plan try to identify 1.How variable definitions are turned into specific research questions 2.How the research questions will guide the research and gather the answers needed.

Variable Effectiveness

Definition (within study) If the students pronunciation improves after they use the software, according to the softwares analysis and the students own opinion Software program designed to help ESL students improve heir English pronunciation individually.

Tell Me More program

Variables turn into research questions

Pronunciation The ability to create the sounds of words in English skills improvement gets better (according to the softwares analysis and 3. Research Questions: student opinion).

1.How does the CALL program Tell Me More help improve the pronunciation skills of basic level ESL students? 2.How do the students feel about the improvement (or not) of their pronunciation? 3.Does the students pronunciation improve after using the CALL software Tell Me More?

and keep a record of the students performance to see if their pronunciation improves after using the software. I will survey and hold informal talks with the students to find out how they feel about using the software and if they feel that their pronunciation improves after using it. This information will help the institute and lab choose appropriate pronunciation software and shed light onto how to make the best use of the software.

4. Intervention or innovation: I will observe

which then determine the intervention or innovation that will occur.

Develop Research Questions


What are your specific questions? What are you really going to focus on?
Help focus the data collection plan Help validate that you have a workable way to proceed with your investigation

Step 4: Intervention/Innovation
An Intervention/Innovation is What you will do*, change, or introduce in your study to improve the educational problem mentioned.
I will implement include incorporate

* Note: It is also possible to do a descriptive research project whose


intervention is in the action plan for the future.

Step 5: Membership
The members of your study are
Anyone who plays a part in your research.
Yourself Students Administrator Parents

Describe the Membership of the Action Research Group


Who will you be working with?

Why are they important?


What will be each persons roles/responsibilities?

5. Membership
Member Why important Roles and responsibilites

Basic level They use the ESL software students Me I work in the lab to observe the students and help them if they need help

Use the software, take a survey, converse with me Observe, gather data, take notes, give surveys, have conversations with students

Clarifying the members of the study

6. Negotiations

1. I will need to ask the permission of the CCA to do observations in the Computer lab. 2. I will need to ask the students to take surveys about their practice with the software in the lab.

leads to determining negotiations that must be made in order to get the information you need.

Step 6: Negotiations
Negotiations are...
Conversations and/or permission that needs take place before you can gather your data
Permission to gather information, hold interviews, do observations, audiotape, videotape, use workspace, etc. Confirmation of cooperation from others in any aspect of the study

Describe Negotiations that Need to be Taken


What negotiations do you have to undertake with others to implement your action research plan?
How will you get access to the site? Do you need permission? From whom? How will you get it?

Step 7: Timeline

A timeline...
Guides and organizes your research Keeps you on track

Develop a Timeline
Who will be doing what and when?* *Hint: Work backwards in time!
Phase 1 (July-Nov): Identity area focus, review literature
develop research questions, reconnaissance.

Phase 2 (date-date) Phase 3 (date-date)


(July-Nov) Phase 1 (date) Phase 2 (date) Phase 3

Step 8: Resources
Resources are...
Materials you will need in order to perform your research study.
All researchers need a journal and pencil! Technology- video camera, tape recorder, computer, etc. (Dont forget batteries!) Graphic organizers, class documents, etc.

Step 9: Data Collection Ideas


Data that
Answers your research questions Provides evidence for your reflections on what you are researching Can be supported by other sources of data (triangulation of data)

Develop Data Collection Ideas


What kind of data will provide you the evidence you need?
From what source will you get it?
Naturally occurring data: test scores, attendance records, writing samples, portfolios, anecdotal records,... Other types of data: interviews, surveys, questionnaires, videotapes, audiotapes, maps, photos, observations,

7. Timeline Date

Action

Feb 23 Feb-May
May 18

Start gathering data Gather data and analyze it


Draw conclustions and write up paper Create powerpoint Presentation

8. Statement of Resources:

Jun 2 Jun 12

a timeline for completion (Hint: count backwards) a list of what youll need

All this work requires

Notebook/pencil for fieldnotes & journal Survey Questions for informal conversations
9. Data Collection Ideas: Information needed

How get it

How does pronunciation improve with TMM? Students feelings about pronunciation improvement Does pronunciation improve with TMM?

Observation and fieldnotes of improvement as analyzed by the program and through surveys and informal conversations with students. Surveys and informal conversations with the students.

Observation and fieldnotes of improvement as analyzed by the program.

and ideas on how to best get the information you need to answer your research questions.

3. Research Questions:

1.How does the CALL program Tell Me More help improve the pronunciation skills of basic level ESL students? 2. How do the students feel about the improvement (or not) of their pronunciation? 3. Does the students pronunciation improve after using the CALL software Tell Me More?

Research questions should be directly related to the data collection ideas and the data sources from which data are gathered

9. Data Collection Ideas: Information needed How get it

How does pronunciation improve with TMM? Students feelings about pronunciation improvement Does pronunciation improve with TMM?

Observation and fieldnotes of improvement as analyzed by the program and through surveys and informal conversations with students. Surveys and informal conversations with the students.

Observation and fieldnotes of improvement as analyzed by the program.

Step 10: Develop Triangulation Matrix


A Triangulation Matrix Shows various data sources that will be used to answer each research question. Assures that your findings will be supported by multiple sources
* In the following samples of a Triangulation Matrix, try to identify 1.The variables which became research questions 2.The data sources that will answer those questions

Sample 1: Triangulation Matrix Methods of Data Collection

Sample 2: Triangulation Matrix Methods of Data Collection


Research Questions
How does pronunciation improve with TMM? Students feelings about pronunciation improvement

Source 1
Direct observations and field notes

Source 2
Participant observations and field notes

Source 3

Direct observations and field notes

Participant observations and field notes

Surveys and informal interviews

Does pronunciation improve with TMM?

Direct observations and field notes

Participant observations and field notes

Surveys and informal interviews

PUT THE INTO

Dont stop there Write an Action Research Paper!


Why? The process of writing requires the writer to clarify meaning. The act of putting information on paper for your peers and teachers necessitates honesty, accuracy, clarity, and thought. Research, once written, can be shared with a wider audience.