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Principle[s] and Objectives of Oven Operation:

Utilize thermal energy released by fuel consumption


[combustion] to raise temperature of an enclosed space/volume
maintain control of enclosure temperature
minimize heat transfer to environment
maximize efficiency in fuel consumption
minimize operation time
Attributes of Operation:
cC [+ C
x
H
y
O
z
] + nO
2
= iCO + jCO
2
+ H
2
O + . AH
rxn
released
Heat of Combustion
Sensible heat [Enthalpy Increments]
| |

= A
n
i
T
T rxn
H H
2
1
| | ( )
}
=
2
1
2
1
T
T
i
p
i
T
T
C H
Heat generated during combustion utilized in raising
temperatures of all components of the system - food, air, reaction
products, components of cooker - including walls.
Objectives:
minimize fuel consumption
minimize weight [wall thickness]
minimize operation time
The Model:
heat introduced into furnace by reaction of fuel with
oxygen in air
heat lost from furnace through [i] sensible heat in output
gases, [ii] heating of input air and [iii] furnace walls, [iv]
heat loss from exterior surfaces of furnace.
T
i

T
s

0 x w
Q
i

Q
o

Non Steady-State [Transient] Heat Flow
2
2
2
x
T
a T a
t
T
c
c
= V =
c
c
a = thermal diffusivity, m
2
/s
k
c
= thermal conductivity, W/m
o
K
c = specific heat, J/Mg
o
K
= density, Mg/m
3

c
k
a
c
=
where:
| |
w
T T
dx
dT
s i

=
Once the operating temperature [T
i
] has been reached, and
sensible heat balance has been achieved though air flow control,
heat losses are through [1] heat losses from the furnace and [2]
heating of the furnace walls
0 x
Q
w heat flows though wall through conduction
driven by a temperature gradient..
T
i

T
s

T
i
determined by the heat balance of calorific
power in fuel and sensible heat in gas
T
s
determined by heat transfer to environment
and conduction balance
Q = Q
cond
= Q
conv
+ Q
rad

T
i
T
s

Q
cond

T
surr

Q
conv

Q
rad

Q
conv
= h
c
[T
s
- T
x
]
h
c
= convective heat tranfer
coefficient, ~ 5-50 W/m
2
K
T
x
= temperature at surface of
a stagnant fluid layer
adjacent to surface, ~ T
surr

Q
rad
= co[T
s
4
- T
surr
4
]
c = emissivity [0/1]
o = Stefan constant [5.67x10
-8
W/m
2
K
4
]
(


= =
2
2
s i
av
T T
w c wT c Q
w t T T k t
dx
dT
k Q
s i c c
/ ] [ *
1
= =
Energy Loss to Surroundings [per unit area of surface]
Energy Consumed in Heating Oven/Furnace Walls
c = specific heat [J/MgK]
= density [Mg/m
3
]
k
c
= thermal
conductivity [W/mK]
Total Energy Consumption for Given Operation Cycle
t
w
T T
k
T T
w c Q
s i
c
s i
total
(


+
(


=
2

minimizing Q
total
[by setting dQ
total
/dw = 0]:
t
w
T T
k
T T
c
opt
s i
c
s i
(
(


=
2
2
0
which gives w
opt
= [2k
c
t/c]
1/2
= [2at]
1/2
, where a = thermal
diffusivity, k
c
/c [m
2
/s]
note: if w
opt
limited to w
max
, a < w
max
2
/2t
substituting w
opt
for w in expression for Q
total
:
Q
total
= (T
i
- T
s
)(2t)
1/2
(k
c
c)
1/2
= (T
i
- T
s
)(2t)
1/2
(k
c
/a
1/2
)
For which Q
total
is minimized by maximizing the performance
index M
1
:
M
1
= a
1/2
/k
c

log[M
1
] = 1/2log[a] -log[k
c
]
log[a] = 2log[M
1
] + log[k
c
]
Based on specified cooking procedures [searing steak at up
to 750 F] [670 K], and giving some room for overshoot,
specify a minimum operating temperature of 1000 K.
based on optimizing M1, best things are your foamed
materials - polymers won't take the heat, of course, leaving
bricks and other silica based things
Minimizing Material Cost:
total cost [C
total
] = C
m
w, where C
m
= cost per unit mass
substituting w = (2at)
1/2

C
total
= C
m
(2at)
1/2

where maximizing M
2
= [1/C
m
][1/a]
1/2
minimizes cost
log[M
2
] + log[C
m
] = -1/2log[a]
log[a] = -2log[M
2
] - 2log[C
m
]
based on cost [M
2
], mullite, silica and the like show up
pretty pricey....