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Formation Testing and Fluid Sampling

Formation: Reservoir quality Fluid: Oil, Gas or Water? Borehole: Environmental factors

Formation Properties

Radioactivity Porosity Grain density Pore Size Stratigraphy Bedding, Dip Sonic Velocity Seismic Velocity

Fluid Properties

Salinity (Resistivity) Density Saturation Pressure Temperature Viscosity Mobility Bubble Point

Borehole Properties
Depth Caliper Spontaneous Potential Temperature Cable Tension Deviation, Azimuth

First tools for sampling only (FIT) Next generation added pretest capability to

check permeability before committing to sampling (RFT) Pressure tests became even more important that sampling. Latest tools are modular and permit many combinations of probes, sensors and sample chambers (RDT, MDT).

Tool Modules
Modern tools can be configured from a selection
of modules:
Power Module (top of tool) Hydraulic Module (top of hydraulic bus) Probe /Dual Probe Module Pump Out Module Sample Chambers Multisample (PVT) chamber carriers Fluid Analyser modules (optical/NMR) Inflate packer modules

Example Configuration

Probe Module (MDT)

Gauge Types
Quartz Gauge
Most accurate Highest resolution Slow temperature stabilisation Complex calibration Measures absolute pressure (PsiA) Lower accuracy Fast response Easy calibration (dead weight tester) Relative to atmospheric pressure (PsiG) = PsiA 14.7 psi

Strain Guage

RDT has two probes on standard probe
module. Each probe can be connected or disconnected from the flowline. Each probe has its own Strain/Sapphire gauge. The Quartz gauge is in a separate module on the flowline.

Pressure Testing Theory

We set the tool to lock it in position Next we extend a probe into the formation

sealed with a rubber packer The formation fluid is sucked into the tool using a pretest piston (0-100cc). We then wait for the formation pressure to build up to its true value. The speed of build up gives a measure of formation mobility (md/cp).

Pretest Plot Features

Pretest Types
If the pressure does not build up in a reasonable

time it is a dry test or tight test. If the pressure returns to hydrostatic it is a seal failure. If the formation pressure stabilises (slowly) to a higher than normal value it is supercharged. All other tests that yield a valid formation pressure are Normal Tests.

Dry Test Example

Seal Failure Example

Pretest Applications
Pressure Gradients to determine fluid
type. Looking for communication between wells. Checking for drawdown in producing fields. Estimating formation mobility / permeability.

Pressure Gradients
Pressure must be plotted against depth TVD

(not MD). Mud gradient will depend on mud weight. Fresh Water gradient will be approx 0.43 psi/ft Oil gradient 0.25-0.35 psi/ft Condensate gradient 0.15 0.2 psi/ft Gas gradient 0.01 0.1 psi/ft Density (g/cc) = Gradient (psi/ft) / 0.433 Density (lb/gal) = Gradient (psi/ft) * 19.27

Gradient Errors
Gradient can be affected by errors in
pressure and depth. For example two water points 2 feet apart will show 0.37 0.61 psi/ft for a total depth error of +/- 6 The same points will plot at 0.36 0.56 psi/ft for a +/- 0.2 psi error in pressure difference.

Pressure Gradient Plot

Real Pressure Data

Formation Pressure (PSIA) 700 1500.0 1600.0 1700.0 1800.0 1900.0 2000.0 2100.0 2200.0 2300.0
TVDSS (ft.)











2400.0 2500.0 2600.0 2700.0 2800.0 2900.0 3000.0 3100.0 3200.0 3300.0 3400.0 3500.0 y = 2.3131x - 61.504 R2 = 0.9956 y = 1.996x - 86.167 R2 = 0.9996 Hydrostatic Pressure Formation Pressure Formation Gradient psi/ft Hydrostatic Pressure

Fluid Sampling


Bubble Point
The bubble point is the pressure below
which gas will start to come out of solution. It is essential for good quality PVT samples that the sample never passes through the bubble point. This is accomplished by using low shock PVT sampling techniques.

Low Shock Sampling

Following the pretest the formation fluid is pumped out

to the borehole, maintaining pressure above bubble point. Once the fluid contamination has dropped below an acceptable threshold the sample bottle is opened. When the outlet port is closed the pressure increases and the fluid is pumped into the bottle against hydrostatic pressure. When the bottle is full pressure rises again and the bottle is sealed at above hydrostatic pressure. This is required so that at surface temperature the pressure will remain above the bubble point.

Fluid Properties
All tools have a Resistivity sensor Resistivity should distinguish between

OBM filtrate and water (but not gas or oil). MDT has optional optical fluid detection that can distinguish filtrate from oil/gas and detect CO2 (latest version LFA) RDT has optional NMR module that can clearly differentiate oil and OBM filtrate.

Formation Testing Test 1

1. Name the two modules that cannot be
anywhere in the tool string but must be at the top. 2. Of the two which must be above the other? 3. Which gauge type has the highest accuracy Quartz or Strain? 4. Which has the fastest response? 5. What is the expected pressure difference between them?

Formation Testing Test 2

6. What are the primary uses for formation
pressure measurements (pretests)? 7. What do we call a pretest that fails to build up? 8. What do we call a pretest that builds up to hydrostatic pressure? 9. What do we call a pretest that slowly builds to an abnormally high pressure? 10.What are all other pretests called?

Formation Testing Test 3

11.What is a fresh water gradient? 12.What is a typical gas gradient? 13.Why do we calculate gradients using
TVD depths? 14.How do we reduce contamination of samples from mud filtrate? 15.What is the point of low shock sampling?

Formation Testing Test 4

16. What is the bubble point? 17. Describe how low shock sampling is

performed. 18. Why do we overpressure the sample before sealing the bottle? 19. What fluid properties can we measure in the standard tools? 20. What additional fluid identification modules are available?