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Chemical Stabilization of Subgrades

Section Engineers Meeting Lake Cumberland State Resort Park March 5-7, 2013

Why should soil subgrades be stabilized?

Improve Bearing Capacity


CBR of Clays Soils are 1 to 5 CBR of Silts 4 to 10 Silts Very Susceptible to Changes in Moisture Stabilized Subgrade Will Last for Many Years 85% of Soils in Kentucky are Silts and Clays

Types of chemical stabilization

Lime: Lean to Fat clays Plastic Index Predominantly > 15


Cement: Sandy and Silty Soils Plastic Index <20 PI 15 to 25: Lime or Cement may be used

Lime Kiln Dust: Clays


Cement Kiln Dust: Sandy Soils Kiln Dust is byproduct from cement and lime manufacturing Cheaper but more may be needed Good for drying wet soils (modification)

Types of chemical stabilization

Lime: takes longer (mellowing period initial and final mixing)

Cement: Mixed and compacted within a few hours Kiln Dust: Lower Cost; not as much active calcium available

When should soil subgrades be stabilized?

CBR of Clays Soils are 6 or less


CBR Values KY 1303 Section 2
5
# of Samples

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 CBR 6 7

15 samples

10

When should soil subgrades be stabilized?


CBR of Clays Soils are 6 or less
KY 1303 Section 2

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Percentile

CBR = 2.6 @ 85th percentile

CBR

How much stabilizer should be used


Eads and Grim Test (ASTM D 6276) The lowest amount needed to reach a pH of 12.4
pH Versus Percent Stabilizer
14 12 10 8

pH
6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Percent Stabilizer

How much stabilizer should be used


Unconfined Compressive Strength, Qu, test on lime stabilized sample

How much stabilizer should be used?


The lowest amount needed to reach a specified strength
UCS Versus Percent Stabilizer
120

Unconfined Compressive Strength

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Percent Stabilizer

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Construct subgrade to plan elevation

Sampling before starting


Send samples (1 per 1,000 feet min.) to Geotechnical Branch at least 3 weeks

before starting stabilization


Proctor tests may take 2 weeks If you think a soil needs stabilization call Geotech

Procedures (Lime Stabilization) Quick Lime is delivered and transferred to mixing (slaking tank) CaO + H2o Ca(OH)2 Quick Lime is converted to Hydrated Lime

Procedures (Quick Lime Stabilization)

Lime Slurry is transferred to dispensing truck

Procedures (Quick Lime Stabilization)

Scarify Subgrade

Procedures ( Quick Lime Stabilization)

Apply lime slurry to scarified subgrade

Procedures (Quick Lime Stabilization)

Apply lime slurry to scarified subgrade

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Mix slurry and soil to specified depth

Procedures (Lime Stabilization quick lime)

Mix slurry and soil to specified depth

#4 Sieve,

1 Inch Sieve,

2 Inch Sieve

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Lightly Compact

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Mellow for one day and mix again

Clay will have a silty texture

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Mellow for one day and mix again

Procedures (Lime Stabilization) Final Compaction (24- 72 hours)

Procedures (Hydrated Lime Stabilization) Dry (hydrated lime) application Ca(OH)2 Hydrated lime is delivered in tanker Transported to spreader truck

Procedures (Hydrated Lime Stabilization) Dry (hydrated lime) application Ca(OH)2 Hydrated lime spread on subgrade

Dry (hydrated lime) application Water added during mixing Compaction same as for quick lime

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Check compaction

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Cut to final grade

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Cut to final grade

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Check Depth of chemical stabilization

Lime Testing
Soil sampler

Depth Testing
Phenolthalein lime testing solution

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Depth of chemical stabilization

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Depth of chemical stabilization

Procedures (Lime Stabilization)

Keep moist

Procedures (Lime Stabilization) Apply an asphalt seal No additional moisture is needed after sealing Typical cure time is seven days maximum

Why is quick lime paid at 1.25 times actual quantity? Quick lime is delivered and transferred to mixing (slaking tank) CaO + H2o Ca(OH)2 quick lime is converted to hydrated lime CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

Molecular Weight CaO Ca 40.08 x 1 = 40.08 O 16.00 x 1 = 16.00 Total 56.08


74.10/56.08 = 1.32

Molecular Weight Ca(OH2) Ca 40.08 x 1 = 40.08 O 16.00 x 2 = 32.00 H 1.00 x 2 = 1.02 Total 74.10
Close to 1.25?

Truck being filled with Cement

Procedures (Cement Stabilization)

Dry application

Mix one time and compact soon

Water Applied to Soil

Procedures (Cement Stabilization)

Water can be applied to mixer directly Typical cure time sometimes shortened

Procedures (Cement Stabilization)

Water applied to mixer directly

Field testing to determine long-term strengths And durability of chemically stabilized subgrades

Field testing to determine long-term strengths And durability of chemically stabilized subgrades

SPT TESTS

Coring a stabilized subgrade using compressed air as cooling medium

Core of stabilized subgrade and asphalt about 30 years old

Shelby Tubes of stabilized subgrade (special tubes made) and layer below the stabilized subgrade

Field CBR test on stabilized subgrade and below stabilization

Percentile Test Value

100 90 80 70

Percentile

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

CBR

Lime

Cement

Cement&Lime

Kiln

Design

In Situ CBR
From University of Kentucky Transportation Center

180

DCP Tests on stabilized subgrade

Implementation
Stabilization or modification of all new highways with CBRs of 6 or less is recommended by Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Chemical stabilization is now a standard in highway construction Many industries and businesses use chemical stabilization

Benefits
Economical Prevents pavement failures during construction Structural credit can and is be given to stabilized subgrade Reduces subgrade swell Long-term 30 years or more

Spreads Loads
100 psi

100 psi

4 psi

Stabilized Base

15 psi
Unstabilized Granular Base

Eliminates Rutting Below Surface

Unstabilized Base

Stabilized Base

Rutting can occur in surface, base and subgrade of unstabilized bases due to repeated wheel loading

Stabilized bases resist consolidation and movement, thus virtually eliminating rutting in all layers but the asphalt surface.

Reduced Moisture Susceptibility


High water table
Unstabilized Granular Base

Stabilized Base

Thank You