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1. 2.

Theory world of ideas, theories, models Empirical research world of observation and experience


Goals of Social Sciences Explore, explain phenomena prediction Theoretical / Conceptual World Empirical World

Strategies linking Theoretical & Empirical Worlds

Theory before Research Quantitative Paradigm Method Triargulation ( mixed / multiple theories, methods, data, researches ) Research before Theory Qualitative Paradigm Method

Between Paradigm / Across method

Within Paradigm / Method


Theory-then-research 2. Research-then-theory 3. Spiraling Strategy Theory and research must interact constantly Contrast between these strategies are more apparent than real

Theory-Then-Research Strategy Idea Theory Design Data Collection Analysis Findings/Generalizations Research-Before-Theory Strategy Idea Design Data Collection Theory Analysis Major Findings Spiraling Strategy Idea Theory Design Data Collection and Organization Analysis and Interpretation Conclusion Literature Review ( Note: see Berge, 1995:16)


Theories Direct Observations / Experiences - Issues, difficulties, current practices Critical Review of Professional Literature - Familiarizes with the current state of knowledge (related to the research topic) - Contribute to cumulative nature of scientific knowledge


Concepts Theories Conceptual and Operational Definitions Problems and hypotheses studied by others Research methods used Findings Recommendations

Problem Generalization Hypothesis

Data Analysis


Research Design

Data Collection


Main Stages of the Research Process

The Purpose Statement

Establishes the Direction for the research
- Captures in a single sentence or paragraph, the essence of the study

Must be written as clearly and concisely as possible


- Needs to be firmly grounded in the paradigm assumption ( basic indicator of a good purpose statement ) e.g. a good qualitative purpose statement expresses / implies the assumptions of qualitative paradigm i.e., language of qualitative research and methodology of an emerging design based on experiences of individuals in the natural setting.


- represents specific statements of the purpose


of the study Typically uses research questions, not objectives or hypotheses Ask one or two grand tour questions followed by not more than five to seven subquestions to narrow the focus of the study but that do not constrain the qualitative researcher. - Write not more than 12 questions in all (Miles&Huberman, 1984) - These questions become topics explored in interviews, observations, documents and archival material The question format might be related to specific qualitative design types. Begin the research questions with the words what or how. Tell the reader that the study will do one of the following, which convey the language of an emerging design. - discover (e.g. grounded theory ) - explain or seek to understand (e.g ethnography) - explore the process (e.g case study ) - describe the experience (e.g. phenomenology)

questions that use nondirectional wording - These questions describe, rather than relate variables or compare groups. - Delete words that suggest or refer a quantitative study, words with a directional orientation. - e.g affect, influence, impact, determine, case and effect. Expect the research questions to evolve and change during the study Use open-ended questions without experience to the literature or theory unless otherwise dictated by a qualitative design type. Use a single focus and specify the research site in the research questions.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM - represents specific restatements of the purpose of the study


survey designs, these restatements of the purpose of the study take the form of research of questions or objectives In experiments, they are hypotheses: - may be a comparison between two or more groups in terms of a dependence variable. - may be a comparison between two or more independent and dependent variables. - may be descriptive questions to describe responses to the independent and dependent variables.

Guidelines in the Development of Quantitative Questions , Objectives and Hypotheses

3. When writing this passage, select one form. - write questions, objectives or hypotheses but not a combination. Hypothesis declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables ( Kerlinger, 1979; Mason and Bamble, 1989) Research Questions- also poses a relationship, but phrases the relationship as a question(Krathwohl, 1988) Objective is the same relationship statement in declarative form. Mixing hypotheses with questions or objectives conveys an informal (and redundant) style of writing.

1. Develop the hypotheses, questions, or objectives from theory - in the deductive methodological process of quantitative research, they are test table propositions deduced from theory ( Kerlinger, 1979 ).

2. Keep the
independent and dependent variables separate and measure them separately - this procedure reinforces the causeand-effect logic quantitative research.

4 If hypotheses are used, consider the alternative forms for writing them and make a choice based on the audience for the research Use the formal, traditional language to write hence for the research Use the formal, traditional language to write hypotheses. Null hypotheses states that there is no significant relationship between or among the variables





literary null (concept oriented, no direction) literary alternative (concept oriented, directional) operational null (operational, no direction) operational alternative (operational, directional)

- or there is no
significant differences between or among groups (Armstrong, 1974) Alternative hypotheses state a direction for the relationship or the differences. This is used if the literature suggests a hypothesized direction for the variables (Krathword, 1988). Consider writing hypotheses in one of four forms:

Literary form means that the variables will be stated in abstract, concept-oriented language Operational form the variables will be stated in more specific language.

5. Use major variables other than demographics as independent variables, unless the study merits a close examination of demographic variables. - Quantitative studies verify a theorydemographic variables typically enter these models as intervening or mediating variables. 6. Use the same pattern of word order in the questions, objectives, or hypothesis to establish a formal rhetorical style.

- Example of word order with independent variables stated first. 1. There is no relationship between use of ancillary support services and academic persistence of nontraditional-aged college women. 2. There is no relationship between family support systems and academic persistence of nontraditional aged college women. 3. There is no relationship between ancillary support services and family support systems

7. Use this model for writing questions or hypotheses: Write descriptive questions (or hypotheses) followed by multivariate (or inferential) questions or hypotheses.

write description question(s) for each independent and dependent variable (and important mediating variables, if necessary) in the study. Descriptive questions are then followed by multivariate questions that relate variables and compare groups. Multivariable questions are followed by questions that add any mediating or controlled variables.



- Repeat Key phrases and order the variables by beginning with the independent and concluding with the dependent variables.


+ + Y1 +

Independent Variable

Y2 Mediating Variable


Dependent Variable

Three Independent Variables Influence a Single for the Effects of Two Mediating Variables


Y1 +

_ X2 _
Independent Variable

Mediating Variable Dependent Variable

Two Groups, X1 and X2, Are Compared in Terms of Z1, Controlling for the Effects of Y1 and Y2

Researcher Tests a Theory

Researcher Tests Hypotheses or Research Questions Derived from the Theory

Researcher Operationalizes Concepts or Variables Derived from the Theory

Researcher Uses an Instrument to Measure Variables in the Theory

The Deductive mode of Research in a Quantitative Study