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INDUCTION MOTOR

What is Induction Motor?

PARTS AND ITS FUNCTION

The Stator and the Rotor are each made up of:

An electric circuit (insulated copper or aluminum) A magnetic circuit (laminated steel)

STATOR
Stationary electrical part of the motor Made up of several thin laminations of aluminum or cast iron Sometimes referred to as the windings Consists of poles carrying supply current to induce a magnetic field that penetrates the rotor

The Stator
The stator is the outer stationary part of the motor The Stator is consists of: The outer cylindrical frame of the motor The magnetic path A set of insulated electrical windings
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The Stator

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Stator coil
The stator coils are the copper wires embedded into the stator of the induction motor. The current flows into these wires to produce a magnetic field making the rotor of the motor rotate in one direction. The direction of the mmf depends upon the instantaneous current flows and using the right hand rule.
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Three phase motor


The three phase induction motors are the motors mostly frequently encountered in industry. They run at essentially constant speed from zero to full-load. The speed is frequency-dependent and, consequently, these motors are not easily adapted to speed control.

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Single phase motor


The single phase can run the induction motor. However, it will not self-start. The single coil of a single phase induction motor does not produce a rotating magnetic field, but a pulsating field reaching the intensity 0 to 180 electrical.

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The only way to solve the problem of the single phase is to build a 2phase motor, deriving power from single phase. This requires a motor with two windings spaced apart 90 electrical, fed with two phases of current displaced 90 in time. This is called a permanent-split capacitor motor.
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ROTOR
Rotating part of the electromagnetic circuit Most common type of rotor is the squirrel cage Consist of a group of electromagnets arranged around a cylinder with a poles facing towards the stator poles Located inside the stator
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The AC Induction Motor comprises 2 Electromagnetic Parts Stationary part called the stator Rotating part called the rotor

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The Rotor
The Rotor is the rotating part of the motor constructed of copper or aluminum strips consists of a set of slotted steel laminations The electrical circuit of the rotor can be either: Wound rotor type Squirrel cage rotor type
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The Rotor

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BEARING
Hold the rotating shaft to the motor frame support the rotor and allow it to turn Common bearings are the sleeve type and the ball type Lubricated with oil Bearing

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Bearing
the purpose of bearing is they avoid the direct contact between the outer and inner surface and thus reducing the friction and the given power can be used economical The shaft is mounted on the bearing so it can rotate freely.
Ball Bearing

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Bearing Lubrication
Reduce friction Reduce Transfer heat Carry away contaminants and debris Protect against wear Prevent corrosion
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FRAME
Holds all the parts in place Provides a means of mounting the motor to machinery Conducts heat produced within the motor to the surrounding air Protects the electrical and operating parts of the motor from harmful effects of the environment in which the motor operates

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FORMULAS

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Other Parts

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APPLICATIONS
House fans Blowers Compressors Domestic and industrial appliances

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


Advantages
Simple and rugged in construction Cheaper in cost due to the absence of brushes, commutators, and slip rings They are maintenance free motors unlike dc motors and synchronous motors due to absence of brushes, commutators and slip rings Can be operated in polluted and explosive environments as they do not have brushes which can cause sparks 3 phase induction motors will have self starting torque, hence no starting methods are employed unlike synchronous motor

Disadvantages
3 phase induction motors have poor starting torque and high in rush current They always operate under lagging power factor and during light load conditions they operate at very worst power factor. Hence capacitor banks should be placed to deliver the reactive power Speed control of induction motors are difficult, hence for fine speed control applications dc motors are used. Due to advance in power electronics, variable frequency drives using induction motors are used in industries for speed control

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AC electric induction motors (Efficiencies)

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Definition of energy efficiency


Efficiency is the ratio of mechanical energy output divided by the electrical energy input. There are different efficiency definitions that describe the relationship between a motors rating and efficiency test results

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- Tested. This refers to the efficiency measured by testing that specific motor. - Nominal or Average Expected. Nominal values are the average values obtained after testing a sample population of the motor model. - Nameplate. This refers to the efficiency measured by a specific standard. - Minimum. These values are intended to represent the lowest point in the bell curve of motor efficiency distribution.

- Apparent Efficiency. This is the product of a motors efficiency and power factor.

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Electrical Motor Efficiency when Shaft Output is measured in Watt If power output is measured in Watt (W), efficiency can be expressed as: m = Pout / Pin Where: m = motor efficiency Pout = shaft power out (Watt, W) Pin = electric power in to the motor (Watt, W)
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Electrical Motor Efficiency when Shaft Output is measured in Horsepower If power output is measured in horsepower (hp), efficiency can be expressed as: m = Pout 746 / Pin Where: Pout = shaft power out (horsepower, hp) Pin = electric power in to the motor (Watt, W)
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Minimum Nominal Efficiencies


Power (hp)
Minimum Nominal Efficiency1)

1-4

78.8

5-9

84.0

10 - 19

85.5

20 - 49

88.5

50 - 99

90.2

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1-4

78.8

5-9

84.0

10 - 19

85.5

20 - 49

88.5

50 - 99

90.2

100 - 124

91.7

> 125

92.4

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Several more innovative approaches to improving efficiency are currently being attempted in the industry. For induction motors, the most notable change is the move from cast aluminum rotors to cast copper rotors. This can raise efficiency by about 1% at three horsepower (3 hp). However, the cost of cast copper rotors is a significant factor.
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Aluminum Vs Copper
Lower coefficient of expansion for copper: aluminium will creep and move approximately 33% more than copper. Higher tensile strength for copper: copper is 300% stronger than aluminium and thus able to withstand high centrifugal force and the repeated hammering from currentinduced forces during each start. Higher melting point of copper: copper can better withstand thermal cycling over the life of the motor.
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Losses that may affect the efficiency of an induction motor


Primary and Secondary Resistance Losses The electrical power lost in the primary rotor and secondary stator winding resistance are also called copper losses. The copper loss varies with the load in proportion to the current squared - and can be expressed as Pcl = R I2 Where: Pcl = stator winding - copper loss (W) R = resistance () I = current (Amp)
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Iron Losses
These losses are the result of magnetic energy dissipated when when the motors magnetic field is applied to the stator core.

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Stray Losses
Stray losses are the losses that remains after primary copper and secondary losses, iron losses and mechanical losses. The largest contribution to the stray losses is harmonic energies generated when the motor operates under load. These energies are dissipated as currents in the copper windings, harmonic flux components in the iron parts, leakage in the laminate core.
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Mechanical Losses
Mechanical losses includes friction in the motor bearings and the fan for air cooling.

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END
ppt made by: Capuno, Charles Brian C.
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