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Plant Breeding and Applied Genetics

Ute Achenbach Summer, 2008

Course Objectives
Comprehend and be able to discuss how breeders meet their breeding goals today as opposed to several decades ago. This requires basic knowledge on classical breeding methods and an understanding on molecular breeding. Examples will be provided to emphasize the importance of genetics in modern breeding practices.

Learning outcomes
understand the developments in plant breeding and the state of the art breeding practices (ornamentals vs. crops) have some knowledge on the basics of genetics (Mendel, QTL etc.) and understand the idea and the potential of genetic engineering have some understanding on the concepts of molecular breeding have some (practical) knowledge to apply molecular markers for the identification of traits in the genome

be able to determine whether information from the internet regarding modern breeding methods are relevant and informative

Date
May 13 May 20 May 27 Jun 3 Jun 11 Jun 17 July 1 July 8 July 15 July 22 July 29 Aug 5

Program
Introduction (History of Plant Breeding) Aspects of Plant Breeding (Breeding goals and recent achievements) Tour to Engelmanns Nursery Basic genetics (Mendels, QTL, Epistasis) Classical Plant Breeding (Breeding schemes, e.g. Peach) Applied Plant Breeding Molecular Genetics (Tissue culture, e.g. grapes) (Dr. Sadanand Dhekney) Molecular Genetics (PCR, Different marker systems) (Dr. Sadanand Dhekney) LAB SESSION (PCR) DNA fingerprinting and Genetic Engineering (crops and ornamentals) Molecular Breeding/ Breeding by design Exam

History and development of plant breeding (a journey through time)


13th May 2008

Selected milestones in plant breeding


9000 BC 1694 First evidence of plant domestication in the hills above the Tigris river Camerarius first to demonstrate sex in (monoecious) plants and suggested crossing as a method to obtain new plant types

1714

Mather observed natural crossing in maize

1761-1766 Kohlreuter demonstrated that hybrid offspring received traits from both parents and were intermediate in most traits, first scientific hybrid in tobacco 1866 1900 1944 1953 1970 Mendel: Experiments in plant hybridization Mendels laws of heredity rediscovered Avery, MacLeod, McCarty discovered DNA is hereditary material Watson, Crick, Wilkins proposed a model for DNA structure Borlaug received Nobel Prize for the Green Revolution Berg, Cohen, and Boyer introduced the recombinant DNA technology 1994 1995 FlavrSavr tomato developed as first GMO Bt-corn developed

DNA: nucleic acid that contains all the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms

National Human Genome Research Institute by Darryl Leja

Domestication: The process by which people try to control the reproductive rates of animals and plants. Without knowledge on the transmission of traits from parents to their offspring.
Prunus persica
Source: Wikipedia

Plant Breeding: The application of genetic analysis to development of plant lines better suited for human purposes.
Plant Breeding and Selection Methods to meet the food, feed, fuel, and fiber needs of the world Genetic Engineering to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of plant breeding.

Example: Peach (Prunus persica)


Originates from China Introduced to Persia and the Mediterranean region along the silk route Trade and cultural interaction

Breeding objectives

Food (yield and nutritional value), feed, fibre, pharmaceuticals (plantibodies), landscape, industrial need (eg. Crops are being produced in regions to which they are not native).

Note: Details among plant species vary because of origin, mode of reproduction, ploidy levels, and traits of greater importance and adjustments were made to adapt to specific situations.

Conducting plant breeding


Traditional/classical breeding: crossing two plants (hybridization) genetically manipulating?? Variability/ Selection Recombinant DNA technology

Scientific disciplines and technologies of plant breeding


Genetics Botany Plant physiology Agronomy Pathology and entomology Statistics Biochemistry

Classic/ traditional tools


Emasculation Hybidization Wide crossing Selection

Chromosome counting
Chromosome doubling Male sterility Triploidy Linkage analysis Statistical tools

Advanced tools
Mutagenesis Tissue culture Haploidy In situ hybridization

DNA markers

Advanced technology
Molecular markers Marker-assisted selection DNA sequencing Plant genomic analysis

Bioinformatics
Microarray analysis Primer design Plant transformation

Basic steps
Objective Germplasm Selection Evaluation