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Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany

Spodek: 687-690

Why the Nazis could rise to power in Germany


Defeat in World War I Versailles TreatyEngland and France Stabbed Germany in the Back Great Depression: High Employment, Low Profits, People Lose Savings German Military Tradition: Frederick the Great Prussia; Otto Von BismarckUnified Germany; Luddendorf; Hindenburg Anti-SemitismJews as Scapegoats: Had all the jobs; Controlled Politics; Had all the money (None of the above was true but it didnt matter)

Adolph Hitler
Emblematic of German Problem:
Only success came in warwon a minor medal Believed that Germany stabbed in the back Germany should have won the war Unemployed after the warno jobs Couldnt get into art schoolclaimed only Jews got in. He had no artistic talent Formed a paramilitary group to substitute for Germany ArmyNational Socialists

Adolph Hitler (continued)


Hitler promised Germans:
Stability Jobs To be Proud Again To Reverse the Versailles Treaty To End Weak Democracy To Get Rid of the Jews Lebenstraum Living Space for Germans

Fascism
Nation comes first Against Liberalism and Liberal Institutions Irrational Politics Emphasize Street Fighting

SA Storm Troopers (Ernst Rohm)they wanted to get rid of Nazis enemies. They were called the Brown shirts SSSchutzstaffel (Heinrich Himmler) they were called the black shirts.

Key Dates
October 1929Great Depression Summer-Fall 1932 German Elections: Nazis win a majority: 230; Socialists 133, Center 97, Communists 89
The main points: Nazis won 42% of the vote; no center; Nazis powerful but cant form government.

Key Dates Continued


President Hindenburg Names Hitler Chancellor in January 30, 1933. Street Violence February 27 Reichstag FireLegislature Building Burns Down March 5 New Elections: Nazis 288; Nationalists 52; Center 74; Socialists 120; Communists 81; Others 23Nazis win only 44% of vote March 23, 1933Reichstag passes (with huge majority) the Enabling Act which made Hitler dictator until April 1, 1937 July 14, 1933Nazi Party was made only legal party November 12, 1933 Nazis win 92% of the vote Main Point: Only at this date does Hitler behave illegally July 1934-SS and Army purge the SA and they begin to secretly arm the army 1935 Denounces Versailles Treaty 1936 Remilitarizes the Rhineland

The Nazi Revolution


June 30 Night of the long knives Nazis kill 77 people, mostly high ranking SA membersErnst Roehm, Gregor Strasser August 1 Law combining President and Chancellor August 2 Death of President von Hindenburg August 19 Plebiscite approves Hitler as President with 88% voting yes

1936-1937 Four Year Plan


War materials Industrialization Autobahn VW Daimler-Benz General Motors Ford

Racism in Nazi Germany


Belief German Aryan Race Master Race
Jews inferior Slavs inferior Gypsies inferior Eugenics-Social Darwinism run amok Identify Jews (with Yellow Star Deprive Jews of Citizenship Allows only so many Jews in specific jobs Outlaw marriage and sex between Jews and non-Jews

1935 Nuremberg Laws


9 of November 1938
Night of Broken Glass or Kristallnacht In response to assassination of German diplomat in Paris: Nazis set synagogues on fire Broke Jewish shop windows Beat up Jews91 killed; thousands injured Confiscated Jewish property Jews forbidden to collect insurance 20,000+ Jews sent to concentration camp

Why Hitler?
War VetsHated Government for Losing the War Middle ClassRuined by Inflation, Depression WorkersUnemployed IndustrialistsHated Socialist Labor Struggle More than economy/defeat:
Emphasized a cult of war, physical danger, sexuality, future, speed, a new life Airplanes, car, radio

Goebbels and Riefenstahl


Goebbels was the Chief Propaganda Officer. He promoted radios. By 1942, Germany had 23 million radios Leni Riefenstahl was Hitlers filmmaker. Triumph of Will and Olympiad

Hitlers Road to War


March 1938Annexed Austria 1938 German minority in Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) September 1938 Munich Crisis
Appeasement Chamberlain There will be peace in our Time

Spring 1939 Annexed all of Czechoslovakia Summer 1939Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact

World War II in Europe


1 September 1939 Nazis invade Poland 3 of September 1939 England, France declare war on Germany Hitler defeats Poland in a month Phony War (September 1939- May 1940) May 1940 Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France Battle of Britain 22 of June 1941 Germany invades Soviet Union. 1941 First Extermination Camp Created

The Rise of Hitler

Hitler's Profile

1913 moved to Germany Participated in WW1 won Iron Cross (the person who recommended him to get the Cross was Jewish). 1918 left war as was blinded by gas In the army after the war to spy on political groups within

He joins a party and transforms it into the Nazi party Attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government and was put in prison for 9 months While in prison wrote Mein Kampf (My struggle)

Hitler takes Power

Hitler blames Jews and communists for the great depression Became chancellor in 1933 and president in 1934 used title of Der Fuhrer (leader) He nazified Germany in the 1930s removing any opposition and getting his ideas for a greater Germany out there!

Why did he gain support?

What did Hitler do for Germany?


Network of motorways (new jobs and a more efficient Germany) Increased the numbers in the army Stopped reparations once president put that money into the economy Hitler gave money to families that had more than 4 children

Hilter Youth
Children would be vital as they would be the first generation to grow up in the Nazi world Propaganda was a common practice in Nazi schools and the education system. History was based on the glory of Germany a nationalistic approach was compulsory
"The weak must be chiselled away. I want young men and women who can suffer pain. A young German must be as swift as a greyhound, as tough as leather, and as hard as Krupp's steel."

What Hitler did for the people


Investments in Car industry Volkswagon is produced BMW to be produced by those in camps Farmers- higher prices for their produce Unemployed workers jobs creating stadiums and roads Restore profits of small business (end Women were Different but not inferior They had a very important role as mother and caregiver Destroyed trade unions kept wages low Reward for industries who supported Hitler Berlin Olympics newly built Olympic stadium proof that

Concentration Camps

The Nazi's
Gestapo Secret Nazi police Could arrest anyone and send them to concentration camps without trial Aryan bodies blue eyes, blond hair superior Books/Newspapers that disagreed with Nazi views were burned Berlin Olympics 1936 Germany wins more medals than any other country proving their superiority New technology at the Olympics electric timing Jesse Owens USA African American wins 4 gold Hitler is disgusted

Why the Nazis could rise to power in Germany


Defeat in World War I Versailles TreatyEngland and France Stabbed Germany in the Back Great Depression: High Employment, Low Profits, People Lose Savings German Military Tradition: Frederick the Great Prussia; Otto Von BismarckUnified Germany; Luddendorf; Hindenburg Anti-SemitismJews as Scapegoats: Had all the jobs; Controlled Politics; Had all the money (None of the above was true but it didnt matter)

Adolph Hitler
Emblematic of German Problem:
Only success came in warwon a minor medal Believed that Germany stabbed in the back Germany should have won the war Unemployed after the warno jobs Couldnt get into art schoolclaimed only Jews got in. He had no artistic talent Formed a paramilitary group to substitute for Germany ArmyNational Socialists

Adolph Hitler (continued)


Hitler promised Germans:
Stability Jobs To be Proud Again To Reverse the Versailles Treaty To End Weak Democracy To Get Rid of the Jews Lebenstraum Living Space for Germans

Fascism
Nation comes first Against Liberalism and Liberal Institutions Irrational Politics Emphasize Street Fighting SA Storm Troopers (Ernst Rohm)they wanted to get rid of Nazis enemies. They were called the Brown shirts SSSchutzstaffel (Heinrich Himmler) they were called the black shirts.

Key Dates
October 1929Great Depression Summer-Fall 1932 German Elections: Nazis win a majority: 230; Socialists 133, Center 97, Communists 89
The main points: Nazis won 42% of the vote; no center; Nazis powerful but cant form government.

Key Dates Continued


President Hindenburg July 14, 1933Nazi Party Names Hitler Chancellor in was made only legal party January 30, 1933. November 12, 1933 Nazis Street Violence win 92% of the vote February 27 Reichstag Main Point: FireLegislature Building Only at this date does Burns Down Hitler behave illegally March 5 New Elections: July 1934-SS and Army Nazis 288; Nationalists 52; purge the SA and they Center 74; Socialists 120; begin to secretly arm Communists 81; Others the army 23Nazis win only 44% 1935 Denounces of vote Versailles Treaty March 23, 1933Reichstag 1936 Remilitarizes the passes (with huge Rhineland majority) the Enabling Act which made Hitler dictator until April 1, 1937

The Nazi Revolution


June 30 Night of the long knives Nazis kill 77 people, mostly high ranking SA membersErnst Roehm, Gregor Strasser August 1 Law combining President and Chancellor August 2 Death of President von Hindenburg August 19 Plebiscite approves Hitler as President with 88% voting yes

1936-1937 Four Year Plan


War materials Industrialization Autobahn VW Daimler-Benz General Motors Ford

Racism in Nazi Germany


Belief German Aryan Race Master Race Jews inferior Slavs inferior Gypsies inferior Eugenics-Social Darwinism run amok 1935 Nuremberg Laws Identify Jews (with Yellow Star Deprive Jews of Citizenship Allows only so many Jews in specific jobs Outlaw marriage and sex between Jews and non-Jews

9 of November 1938
Night of Broken Glass or Kristallnacht In response to assassination of German diplomat in Paris: Nazis set synagogues on fire Broke Jewish shop windows Beat up Jews91 killed; thousands injured Confiscated Jewish property Jews forbidden to collect insurance 20,000+ Jews sent to concentration

Why Hitler?
War VetsHated Government for Losing the War Middle ClassRuined by Inflation, Depression WorkersUnemployed IndustrialistsHated Socialist Labor Struggle More than economy/defeat:
Emphasized a cult of war, physical danger, sexuality, future, speed, a new life Airplanes, car, radio

Goebbels and Riefenstahl


Goebbels was the Chief Propaganda Officer. He promoted radios. By 1942, Germany had 23 million radios Leni Riefenstahl was Hitlers filmmaker. Triumph of Will and Olympiad

Hitlers Road to War


March 1938Annexed Austria 1938 German minority in Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) September 1938 Munich Crisis
Appeasement Chamberlain There will be peace in our Time

Spring 1939 Annexed all of Czechoslovakia Summer 1939Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact

World War II in Europe


1 September 1939 Nazis invade Poland 3 of September 1939 England, France declare war on Germany Hitler defeats Poland in a month Phony War (September 1939- May 1940) May 1940 Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France Battle of Britain 22 of June 1941 Germany invades Soviet Union. 1941 First Extermination Camp Created

Made by Aman Kr. Singh

Teacher R.Kumar Sir

Copyright Subhodeep Sengupta.