Anda di halaman 1dari 83

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Sanjay Kumar, Currently Associate Professor of


English at JK Lakshmipat University (JKLU), Jaipur

Pushp Lata, Currently Head, Department of Languages,


BITS, Pilani

Oxford University Press 2011

Chapter: 2

Essentials of Grammar

Oxford University Press 2011

Learning Objectives

To learn in detail about the different parts of speech such as nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs To know how many types of nouns are there and how they are formed To learn how pronouns are used and what their types are To learn how to use the articles -a, an, and the appropriately in your speech and writing To learn in detail what a sentence is and its various types

Oxford University Press 2011

Parts of Speech
In English language, there are certain elements, such as noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, etc., which are considered essential parts of speech.

Oxford University Press 2011

Nouns
Noun is a word used to mean a person, place, or a thing. Example 1. Jack is a stupid boy. 2. India is a great country. 3. The jury found the prisoner guilty. 4. Beauty needs no ornaments. 5. I have one sister.

Oxford University Press 2011

Common and Proper Nouns


These are words that are used to refer to common and non-specific things, e.g., girl, boy, camera, computer, keyboard, etc. As a general rule, a common noun does not begin with a capital letter unless it appears at the start of a sentence Examples 1. Jaipur is a fascinating city. 2. Kathak is a famous dance. 3. Mohammad Rafi was a great singer. 4. Nokia is a mobile. 5. Delhi is the capital of India.

Oxford University Press 2011

Proper Nouns
These are names of people, places, organizations businesses, schools universities, etc. They are always written with a capital letter, even if they are in the middle of a sentence.
Examples: London, Paris, Michael, Angela, Mercedes Benz, Honda, Oxfam, King Edward VII, Cambridge University, etc.

Oxford University Press 2011

Collective Nouns
These are words that are used to describe groups of things, e.g., platoon, class, band, cast, etc. Note: Some collective nouns can only be used to refer to specific groups, e.g., herd (of cattle), flock (of sheep), gaggle (of geese), caravan (of camels) Sometimes, a number of persons or things are taken together and spoken of as one, e.g., 1) The army has besieged the town. 2) The police went for a cane charge. 3) The jury gave its verdict

Oxford University Press 2011

Abstract Nouns
These are the words used to name non-physical things. These include feelings, states of mind, concepts, etc. Examples: love, hatred, ambition, cynicism, reluctance, mathematics, sociology, etc. Let us look at a few more examples: 1. Laughter is a good medicine; so, you must laugh. 2. Though common mortals like you and me die, people like Mother Teresa become immortal; death cannot kill them. 3. Friendship is a great blessing. We must be proud of our friends.

Oxford University Press 2011

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Those which can be counted, such as cup, orange, book, engineer, donkey, etc., are called countable nouns. The nouns that we cannot count, such as milk, oil, water, bravery, beauty, dedication, etc., are known as uncountable nouns.

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Find out whether the nouns given below are countable or uncountable.

Girl Wisdom Idea Imagination Style Composure Kite Intuition Paper Tub

Pass Title Chair Magazine Seminar Crime Integrity Movie Cricket Speech

Oxford University Press 2011

Continued
Choose the correct form

Correct Usage

Rushdie is a man of letter/letters. Thousands of people gathered to pay their last respect/respects to the departed leader. The armed force/forces can be seen on a move along the border. We have received the good/goods sent by you.

Rushdie is a man of letters. Thousands of people gathered to pay their last respects to the departed leader. The armed forces can be seen on a move along the border. We have received the goods sent by you.

Oxford University Press 2011

Avoid Errors while Denoting Plural Noun Forms


Choose Between s / -es

Correct Usage

Volcanoes/ Volcanos can keep simmering on for hundreds of years before they burst. The first three cantoes /cantos of the book are wonderfully written The thiefs /thieves made off with the entire jewelry. Photos/ Photoes clicked in the broad day light, are generally not very clear.

Volcanoes can keep simmering on for hundreds of years before they burst. The first three cantos of the book are wonderfully written. The thieves made off with the entire jewelry. Photos clicked in the broad day light, are generally not very clear.

Oxford University Press 2011

Choosing Plural Forms Appropriately


Sometimes, we go wrong while making the plural form of compound nouns. Compound Noun: To give some specific information about something or someone, we use one defining type of noun ahead of another which is known as compound noun, e.g., a book rack (a + noun + noun).

Oxford University Press 2011

Compound Noun Usage


Incorrect

Correct

The good trains derailed on its way to Delhi. The cloth shop is just round the corner. Jane has been working as an air-hostess with Indian Airline.

The goods train derailed on its way to Delhi. The clothes shop is just round the corner. Jane has been working as an air-hostess with Indian Airlines

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Choose the correct forms of the following nouns:

India and America have signed quite a few memorandums/memoranda. What is the criterion/criteria for selection in this organization? Our country is facing several different types of crisis/crises. The phenomenon/phenomena of Indian engineers and doctors going abroad has to change. The parenthesis/parentheses shown within the text are to be removed.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers

India and America have signed quite a few memoranda. What is the criterion for selection in this organization? Our country is facing several different types of crises. The phenomenon of Indian engineers and doctors going abroad has to change. The parentheses shown within the text are to be removed.

Oxford University Press 2011

Pronouns
Pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. Without using pronouns, we actually cannot write in a manner that would be viewed as polished and proper. Examples It is I/me who protested the move in the meeting. We are not so stupid as they/them are. Let I/me speak for a while. Mildred and I/me are childhood friends.

Oxford University Press 2011

Continued

If the pronoun has to be the subject of the sentence, it should be in the subjective case, i.e., it should be written as I, He, She, They, etc. If the pronoun has to be the object of the sentence, it should be in the objective case, i.e., it should be written as Me, Him, Her, Them, etc.

Oxford University Press 2011

Continued
We have to use the pronoun in

the subjective case (I, We, You, They, He, She, It, etc.) the objective case (Me, Us, You, Them, Him, Her, It, etc.) or the possessive case (My, Our, Your, Their, His, Her, Its, etc.)

Oxford University Press 2011

Continued
Different nuances with regard to the usage of pronouns, lets see the different types of pronouns

Personal pronouns (He, She, They, I, We, You, etc.) Impersonal pronouns (It) Demonstrative pronoun (This, Those, These, etc.) Distributive pronouns (Each, Either, Neither, etc.) Indefinite pronouns (Some, Many, Everyone, Someone, etc.) Relative pronouns (Who, Which, Whose, That)

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd

Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns (Myself, Yourself, Themselves, Herself, Himself, etc.)

Examples It is raining quite hard this time. (Its raining quite hard this time.) Its been ages since I met him (It has been ages since I met him.)

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Fill in the blanks with appropriate pronouns 1._______ am the one who cares for ________. 2. When ______ came to the room, ______ was locked. 3. Here is ______ book, take ______ away. 4. He loves _____ wife and cannot live without _____. 5. _______ has lent ______ scooter to _____ for a week.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. I; you 2. I/he/she; it 3. your; it 4. his; her 5 .He; his; him

Oxford University Press 2011

Adjectives
A word used to add to the meaning of a noun or pronoun is an adjective. Examples: 1. Amita is a clever girl. 2. Rohan gave me five books. 3.There is little time for preparation. 4. Each boy must wait for his turn. 5. Neither statement is true.

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd

When words such as each, either, neither, etc. are used with some nouns, they are called Distributive Adjectives. When words like this, that, those etc. precede some nouns, they are called Demonstrative Adjectives. When words like which, what, etc. precede a noun or a pronoun, they are known as Interrogative Adjectives.

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd

Adjectives of Quality good, bad, wonderful, stupid, beautiful, ugly Definite Numeral Adjectives Cardinal one, two, three Ordinal first, second, third Indefinite Numeral Adjectives all, few, many, some, certain, enough Distributive Adjectives this, that, those Demonstrative Adjectives each, neither Interrogative Adjectives which, what Emphasizing Adjectives Very, own

Oxford University Press 2011

Difference between few, a few, and the few; and little, a little, and the little

Few suggests hardly anything or anybody. A few stands for some whereas the few is used to refer to the nouns in the context. Little is almost nothing. A little means some. The little means whatever little amount of something.

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Fill in the blanks with appropriate adjectives from the list of adjectives given below: Pampered, petrified, latest, sensuous, ghastly, stylish, redundant, talented 1. _________ children always get spoilt. 2. Keats poetry is remarkably __________. 3. With dead bodies littered around, it was a ______ sight. 4. Fashionable girls tend to dress-up in a _____ way. 5. Avoid using ________ words in your speech.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. Pampered children always get spoilt. 2. Keats poetry is remarkably sensuous. 3. With dead bodies littered around, it was a ghastly sight. 4. Fashionable girls tend to dress-up in a stylish way. 5. Avoid using redundant words in your speech.

Oxford University Press 2011

Verbs
The verb is the most essential part of speech in English. You can think of a sentence without subject or object but you can not think of a sentence without a verb. Even the shortest sentence contains a verb. Example: Stop!, Come!, Go!, Sit!, etc.

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd
The verbs in English change in form according to Subject and tense. For example, the verb to sing, to dance, to cry, etc. have following forms: 1. to sing, sing, sings, sang, singing, sung 2. to dance, dance, dances, danced, dancing 3. to cry, cry, cries, cried, crying

Oxford University Press 2011

Classification of Verbs
We divide verbs into two broad categories 1. Helping verbs 2. Main verbs

Oxford University Press 2011

Helping Verbs
There are only about 15 helping verbs : is, are, am, was, were, has, have, had, can, could, may, might, must, will, would Modals Examples I. We can. II. People must. III.They will. Linking Verbs Example Manisha is intelligent. (Manisha= intelligent)

Oxford University Press 2011

Main Verbs
These verbs have meaning on their own. Examples I write. Children play. They run. We laugh. Main verbs are also called lexical verbs.

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd
Main verbs have meaning on their own unlike helping verbs. There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in following ways.

Transitive and Intransitive Dynamic and Static Regular and Irregular

Oxford University Press 2011

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


Example I. He read a novel yesterday. II. My mother has planned a trip to Mumbai. III. Snigdha loves swimming.

Read, planned, and loves require objects in order to complete the sentences. Such verbs are called transitive verbs. Transitive verb takes a direct object, e.g., somebody killed the snake. An intransitive verb does not require a direct object, e.g., he died.

Oxford University Press 2011

Dynamic and Stative Verbs


The verbs which describe action are called dynamic verbs. These can be used with continuous tenses. There are other verbs which describe state or a situation and are called stative verbs. They cannot normally be used with continuous tenses. Examples of dynamic verbs: hit, kill, fight, run, go, throw, explode, write, etc. Examples of stative verbs: be, like, love, prefer, impress, hear, see, sound, belong to, consist of, need, appear, resemble, seem, etc.

Oxford University Press 2011

Regular and Irregular Verbs


Regular verbs: base, past tense, past participle Examples Cook, cooked, cooked Clean, cleaned, cleaned Water, watered, watered Irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle Examples Do, did, done Eat, ate, eaten Drink, drank, drunk

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Identify the verbs in the following sentences, as transitive or intransitive. 1. The children are flying kites in the sky. 2. Planes are flying in the sky. 3. He is a man of letters; he writes quite well. 4. He wrote a letter to his beloved. 5. Always speak the truth

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. Transitive 2. Intransitive 3. Intransitive 4. Transitive 5. Transitive

Oxford University Press 2011

Adverbs
Examples Zaheer Khan is a fast bowler.

He bowls fast. But he does not bowl very fast. He bowls moderately fast. Jatin is my fast friend.

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Given below are sentences which choose different adverbs or adverbial phrases. Identify them and define their types: 1. I have not seen him lately. 2. He therefore could not achieve success. 3. She moved around quite sprightly. 4. The refugees slept fretfully in the tent. 5. Probably, he has gone to the market.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. I have not seen him lately. (lately; adverb of time) 2. He therefore could not achieve success. ( therefore; adverb of reason) 3. She moved around quite sprightly. ( around; adverb of place) 4. The refugees slept fretfully in the tent. (fretfully; adverb of manner) 5. Probably, he has gone to the market. (probably; adverb of certainty)

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Read the following sentences and see if the adverbs are rightly placed. Rewrite the sentences if required. 1. He looks often sad and gloomy these days. 2. Doctors have reported that now one can have cancer also due to depression. 3. She is intelligent enough to marry a fool like you. 4. He has been to Kashmir never before. 5. The committee has been already informed about the incidence.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. He often looks sad and gloomy these days. 2. Doctors have now reported that one can have cancer also due to depression. 3. She is intelligent enough not to marry a fool like you. 4. He has never been to Kashmir before. 5. The committee has already been informed about the incidence.

Oxford University Press 2011

Modals
The words such as can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, and ought to are called modals. Examples 1. It may rain today. 2. It might rain today. 3. It will rain today. 4. I can lift this box. 5. I could lift this box.

Oxford University Press 2011

May and Might; Can and Could


When I was young, I ________ swim very well. ______ you live long. You ______ leave now. ______ I, Sir? ______ you solve this sum for me? Though its quite late, it ______ just be fine even if we reach now. _______ you help me cross the road?

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1.When I was young, I could swim very well. (Could for reference to the capability in the past) 2. May you live long! (May for wishes) 3.You may leave now. May I, Sir? (May for seeking and giving permission. Can also possible in informal speech) 4. Could/Can you solve this sum for me? (Could for polite request; Can somewhat impertinent) 5. Though its quite late, it might just be fine even if we reach now. (Might for expressing slight hope)

Oxford University Press 2011

Shall, Should and Will, Would


Look at the following sentences and try to figure out which of the modals out of the given options will suit the purpose according to the context. 1. Will/Shall/Should I open the door for you? 2. Be sincere lest you would/should/may fail miserably in life. 3. She told me that she will/should/would turn twenty six next month.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. Shall I open the door for you? (Shall I are used to know the willingness of the person addressed) 2. Be sincere lest you should fail miserably in life. (Lest meaning so that it does not happen is followed by should) 3.She told me that she would turn twenty six next month. (In indirect narration, will becomes would)

Oxford University Press 2011

Must, Should, and Ought to


The modals must, ought to, and should are used to express concepts of obligation, necessity, duty, advice, suggestion, command, expectation, etc.

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I ________ leave; I am getting late. ________ that I were selected Miss India! What is the point in crying over the spilt milk? You ______ have listened to us earlier! I ______ leave for America next month. Leave it; I _______ do this for you.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Have to/Must Would Ought to/Should Am Will

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Choose appropriate modal for the following expressions: Living in such shanties should be/ must be so difficult! Mustnt you have/Couldnt you have informed us about it in time? Would/May you suggest me some more names? He could/used to be a fun loving guy before marriage. He said I should/might come at any time.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1.

2.
3. 4. 5.

Must be Couldnt you have Would Used to be Might

Oxford University Press 2011

Prepositions
Look at the italicized words in the following sentences: Majestic, the super boar, loves traveling by air. Pussy, the cute cat, sat on the table. Champion, the pampered dog, sat in the car. Petty, the tiny mouse, hid under the chair. Prepositions are the words placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation or connection with the remaining part(s) of the sentence.

Oxford University Press 2011

Important Points to Remember

Using prepositions correctly is not always as easy as it sounds and many a time, errors are caused in sentences due to wrong choice of prepositions in a sentence. Since prepositions relate more to collocations than to rules, it would be more appropriate to learn them with the help of examples.

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Let us see if you can make out the errors that are caused by wrong choice of prepositions in the following sentences:

See you in Christmas. Applications must reach the Registrars Office on 31st May. You must be home before twelve oclock. See you on the theatre. I will discuss this issue on tomorrow. On last Sunday, we went on a picnic. When I listened to him, I found him quite boring. What are doing? I am searching my mobile. For many years, Foxy lived at Delhi; now she is at Jaipur. The Gujarat Earthquake registered 8.1 in the Richter scale.

Oxford University Press 2011

Correct Usage

See you at Christmas. Applications must reach the Registrars Office by 31st May. You must be home by twelve oclock. See you at the theatre. I will discuss this issue tomorrow. Last Sunday, we went on a picnic. When I listened to him, I found him quite boring. What are doing? I am searching for my mobile. For many years, Foxy lived in Delhi; now she is in Jaipur. The Gujarat Earthquake registered 8.1 on the Richter scale

Oxford University Press 2011

At Times Only a Particular Preposition Follows Certain Verbs


Choose Between

Correct Usage

He is endowed by/with wonderful creative talent. On a foreign tour, players have to adapt with/to the changed climatic conditions. I am really grateful to/for you to/for all your support. New meanings can always be derived from/on good writings. He was quite poorly judged with/by his teachers.

He is endowed with wonderful creative talent. On a foreign tour, players have to adapt to the changed climatic conditions. I am really grateful to you for all your support. New meanings can always be derived from good writings. He was quite poorly judged by his teachers.

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd
Choose Between

Correct Usage

The Congress has recently been profited with/by infightings in the BJP. Though a rebel to the core before marriage, he now is confined with/to his wife and kids. The Prime Minister was apprised with/of the latest incidents in the riot-hit areas. The Speakers timely intervention prevented the members from/of coming to blows with each other. He just cant help it; he is addicted with/to wine.

The Congress has recently been profited by infightings in the BJP. Though a rebel to the core before marriage, he now is confined to his wife and kids.

The Prime Minister was apprised of the latest incidents in the riothit areas.
The Speakers timely intervention prevented the members from coming to blows with each other. He just cant help it; he is addicted to wine.

Oxford University Press 2011

Sentence and its Types


A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. Example 1. The boy sang a song in the class.

Phrase A group of words that makes partial sense and does not have a subject and predicate of its own is called a phrase. Example sang a song in the class.

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Now, choose the right prepositions in each of the following sentences and tally your answers with those given in the answer key: When we watch a tragedy, we are overcome in/with emotions. Having been caught using unfair means, he was debarred from/with sitting for/in the examinations of/for three years. Despite all the rumours, we are quite confident about/of securing a win. Many members abstained with/from casting their votes. The captain attributed his victory to/on his team. You need to apologize for/to her immediately. The poem refers with/to the mythical allusions. He was disgusted at/with the idea for/of having to change his childs diapers on/in his wifes absence. If you are ignorant of/about everything, you are likely to fail in life. He sounded particularly obliged to/for his family members.

Oxford University Press 2011

Connectives

Connectives are the words such as and, but, after, because, though, as, wherein, whereupon, for, unless, lest, while, whereas, etc. These are also called conjunctions. Some of these connectives are known as Coordinating Conjunctions and some others are called Subordinating Conjunctions.

Oxford University Press 2011

: To distinguish the Coordinating Conjunction


from a Subordinating Conjunction, look at the following sentences

As he was not well, he could not come to the meeting. (The conjunction as connects the subordinate clause As he was not well, to the main clause he could not come to the meeting; hence a Subordinating Conjunction) He was not well and he could not come to the meeting. (The conjunction and connects two independent clauses he was not well and he could not come to the meeting; hence a Coordinating Conjunction) Unless you solve sums, you cannot feel confident in Mathematics. (The conjunction unless connects a subordinating clause unless you solve sums to the main clause you cannot feel confident in Mathematics; hence a Subordinating Conjunction) She was not beautiful but she looked attractive in that dress. (The conjunction but connects two independent clauses she was not beautiful and she looked attractive in that dress; hence a Coordinating Conjunction)

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd

Main Coordinating Conjunctions: And, but, or, also, eitheror, neithernor, etc.

Main Subordinating Conjunctions: Though, although, as, when, unless, while, because, etc.

Oxford University Press 2011

Incorrect
1. Hardly I had entered the room, when the phone rang. He neither appeared prepared or confident while speaking. You must work hard lest you should not fail. Not only he is stupid but stubborn as well. Such rituals are seldom or ever observed in America. She not only makes errors, but she does not also admit them. No sooner we had boarded the train, it started to move. He is a greater scholar; he always speaks like an expert. We can either speak our mind or can keep quiet in such situations. He is in a fix; he cannot either leave his job nor can do it well. 1.

Correct

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

Hardly had I entered the room, when the phone rang. 2. He appeared neither prepared for the interview nor confident while speaking. 3. You must work hard lest you should fail. 4. He is not only stupid but also stubborn. (OR) Not only is he stupid but also stubborn. 5. Such rituals are seldom or never observed in America. 6. She not only makes errors, but also does not admit them. 7. No sooner had we boarded the train, than it started to move. 8. He is a greater scholar; he always speaks as an expert. 9. We can either speak our mind or keep quiet in such situations. 10. He is in a fix; he can neither leave his job nor do it well. Oxford University Press 2011

Contd.

A group of words that forms a part of a sentence and also has a subject and predicate of its own is called a clause.

Example When we reached home, it was midnight. when we reached home, too seems to make complete sense, but it is not as complete as the other part - it was midnight - is. Even then, it has a subject (we), a verb (reached) an object (home) and an adverb (when). So both these parts are clauses.

Oxford University Press 2011

Difference between whereupon and wherein


Desdemona drops her handkerchief whereupon Iago misuses it.

The conjunction whereupon means immediately afterwards, wherein means in place.

Oxford University Press 2011

Difference between even if and even though


They allowed me to continue the diploma even though I had failed in the first two papers.

Even if is only conditional whereas even though is concessional.

Oxford University Press 2011

Difference between while and whereas


He is idiotic whereas his wife is quite intelligent. I met him while I was going to college.

The conjunction while suggests a simultaneous action whereas the conjunction whereas is written to bring out the contrast.

Oxford University Press 2011

Difference between Despite and In spite of


Despite the fact that he has five daughters, he is not worried. OR In spite of the fact that he has five daughters, he is not worried.

The conjunction despite is not followed by of though in spite is

Oxford University Press 2011

Types of Sentences (based on Sense)


Sentence
Assertive or Declarative Negative

Imperative

Interrogative

Exclamatory

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd
Assertive or Declarative Sentences Example Cassius does his work on time.

Negative Sentences Example Catherine does not do her work on time.

Interrogative Sentences Example Does Brutus do his work on time?

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd
Imperative Sentences Example Antony, do you work on time!

Exclamatory Sentences Example You too, Brutus! Then Caesar must die!

Oxford University Press 2011

Types of Sentence (based on structure)


Sentence

Simple

Complex

Compound

Oxford University Press 2011

Contd
Simple Sentence Example India won the match.

Compound Sentence Example We tried hard but we could not win the match.

Complex Sentence Example Although we tried hard, we could not win the match

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Read the following sentences and state whether they are declarative, exclamatory, imperative, interrogative, or negative. 1. Help us, please. 2. We dont like such things. 3. What a shame! 4. Be quiet. 5. He was stabbed in the party.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Imperative Negative Exclamatory Imperative Declarative

Oxford University Press 2011

Exercise
Read the following expressions and state which of the them are compound sentences and which others are complex sentences.
1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

All are equal but some are more equal than others. You must go or I shall slap you. When we reached back it was quite dark. Show me the place where he was killed. They always claim who never achieve.

Oxford University Press 2011

Answers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Compound Compound Complex Complex Complex

Oxford University Press 2011

THANK YOU !!!

Oxford University Press 2011