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MARKETING MANAGEMENT

12th edition
6
Analyzing
Consumer Markets

Kotler Keller
Chapter Questions
 How do consumer characteristics influence
buying behavior?
 What major psychological processes
influence consumer responses to the
marketing program?
 How do consumers make purchasing
decisions?
 How do marketers analyze consumer
decision making?
6-2
Fig. 6.01 T24

Model of Buyer Behavior


Marketing Other Buyer’s Buyer’s decision
stimuli stimuli characteristics process
Product Economic Cultural Problem recognition
Price Technological Social Information search
Place Political Personal Evaluation
Promotion Cultural Psychological Decision
Postpurchase
behavior

Buyer’s decisions
Product choice
Brand choice
Dealer choice
Purchase timing
Purchase amount
What Influences Consumer Behavior?

 Cultural factors
 Social factors
 Personal factors

6-4
Culture

The fundamental determinant of


a person’s wants and behaviors
acquired through socialization
processes with family
and other key institutions.

6-5
Subcultures
 Nationalities
 Religions
 Racial groups
 Geographic regions
 Special interests

6-6
Social Classes

Upper uppers
Lower uppers
Upper middles
Middle class
Working class
Upper lowers
Lower lowers

6-7
Characteristics of Social Classes

 Within a class, people tend to behave


alike.
 Social class conveys perceptions of
inferior or superior position.
 Class may be indicated by a cluster of
variables (occupation, income, wealth).
 Class designation is mobile over time.

6-8
Social Factors

Reference
Family
groups

Social
Statuses
roles

6-9
Reference Groups
 Membership
 Primary
 Secondary
 Aspirational
 Dissociative

6-10
Family
 Family of Orientation
 Religion
 Politics
 Economics
 Family of Procreation
 Everyday buying behavior

6-11
Personal Factors
 Age  Personality
 Life cycle stage  Values
 Occupation  Lifestyle
 Wealth  Self-concept

6-12
Brand Personality
 Sincerity
 Excitement
 Competence
 Sophistication
 Ruggedness

6-13
Key Psychological Processes
 Motivation
 Perception
 Learning
 Memory

6-14
Motivation
 Freud’s theory
 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
 Herzberg’s two-factor theory

6-15
Perception
 Selective attention
 Selective retention
 Selective distortion
 Subliminal perception

6-16
Five-Stage Consumer Buyer T26

Decision Process
Problem
recognition

Information
search

Evaluation of
alternatives

Purchase
decision

Postpurchase
behavior
Figure 6.4 Consumer Buying Process

 Problem recognition
 Information search
 Evaluation
 Purchase decision
 Postpurchase behavior

6-18
Sources of Information
 Personal
 Commercial
 Public
 Experiential

6-19
Non-compensatory Models of Choice

 Conjunctive : Minimum cutoff


 Lexicographic : perceived most important
attribute
 Elimination-by-aspects : Attribute selected
probabilistically

6-20
Perceived Risk
 Functional  Social
 Physical  Psychological
 Financial  Time

6-21
Fig. 6.07 T27
Steps Between Evaluation of Alternatives
and a Purchase Decision

Attitude
of others
Evaluation Purchase Purchase
of intention decisioin
alternatives

Unantici-
pated
situational
factors
Mental Accounting

 Consumers tend to…


 Segregate gains
 Integrate losses
 Integrate smaller losses with larger gains
 Segregate small gains from large losses

6-23
Fig. 6.08 T28
How Customers Use or
Dispose of Products
To be
Rent it Give it (re)sold
Get rid of it away
temporarily Loan it
To be
used
Trade it
Get rid of it
Product permanently Direct to
Use for consumer
original Sell it
purpose
Keep it Convert Through
to new Throw it middleman
purpose away
Store it To
intermediary