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Research Method

Dr. Dante R. Garcia


Professor The Graduate School University of Santo Tomas

Lecture 1

RESEARCH AND PROCESS

Research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about the presumed relations among such phenomena (Kerlinger 1986 as Cited by Ardales 1992). It is a systematic, objective and comprehensive investigation of certain phenomenon, which involves accurate gathering, recording and critical analyzing, and interpreting of all facts about the phenomenon.

AIM OF RESEARCH

To investigate event based on facts.


Establishing facts means no guesswork, disorganized procedure and biased viewpoint.

TYPES OF RESEARCH
Pure or theoretical type

conducted for the sake of knowing and establishing a theory or a principle. Applied or practical research conducted to obtain certain result solution to improve prevailing conditions.
Applied research aims to apply, test and evaluate usefulness of a theory or knowledge arrive at in solving problems.

TYPES OF RESEARCH (Librero 1993)


Purposive nomenclature Fundamental or Pure research. (physical science viewpoint) development of theories by discovering broad generalization or principles. It is performed in laboratories (as an activity of clinical psychologist) Applied research. Purpose is to improve a product or a process like testing theoretical concepts in actual problem situation. Action research. Purpose is to improve practices and improve those who try to improve the practices. Focused is on immediate application, not on the development of theory, not upon application. Emphasis is problem on local setting and findings are evaluated under universal validity.

TYPES OF RESEARCH (Librero 1993)


Descriptive Nomenclature Historical research. It describes what was. It involves investigation, documentation, analyze and interpret events of the past for purpose of generalizations that are helpful in understanding the present, and to limited extent in anticipating the future.
Descriptive research. Describes what is. It describes, analyze and interpret the conditions that now exist. It involves some kind of comparison and contrast. It may attempt to discover relationship between existing nonmanipulated variables.

Experimental research. It describes what will be when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. The focus is on the relationship of variables. Deliberate manipulation is always a part of experimental method.

Example of applied research


A study on the impact of a technology to a firm or on an industry and the community. The findings will be useful in determining the improvement brought about by the technology (say a machine, process or equipment) in increasing production capacity, income and employment generation.

RESEARCH PROCESS
Define the problem and objectives. The researcher must have the experience on the identified problem. Formulate the objectives based on the problem. Construct a theoretical or conceptual framework. This will show the relationships of variables being studied and will guide the researcher in his analysis. Formulate the hypothesis(es) based on the objectives and framework. These hypothesis is the statement on the expected relationship of the variables which permit empirical testing.

RESEARCH PROCESS
Decide the research design appropriate to the study. Historical, experimental, descriptive and others. Collection of data. Define the population, specify sampling frame, specify the sampling unit, specify the sampling method, determine the sample size, specify sampling plan and select the sample. Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Results and discussion. Conclusion, recommendations and implications

USTGS RESEARCH PROCESS


PROBLEM & OBJECTIVES

THEORETICAL & CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

REVIEW OF LITERATURE/ STUDIES

RESEARCH DESIGN

HYPOTHESIS

CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE

GATHER DATA PROCESS ANALYZE

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS IMPLICATIONS

Function of Research
Corrects perceptions as well as expands them Gathers information on events that we lack knowledge about. Develops and evaluates concepts, practices and theories. Obtains knowledge for practical purposes like solving problems on population explosion, crimes, consumption, inflation, etc. Provides hard facts which serve as bases for planning, decision-making, project implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Review
Define: research, theoretical and applied research. What is the aim of research? Enumerate the research process. Give the functions of research. Give the relationship of the stages in the research process to each other.

Selected Reference
Emory, C. W. and Donald R. Cooper. 1991. Business Research Methods. 4th Edition. Richard D. Irwin, Inc. Homewood Illinois, USA.