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Lecture 27

Modern Physics

Quantum Physics

Blackbody radiation

Planks hypothesis

Chapter 27

http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/PHY2140/

2 9/4/2013

Quantum Physics

3 9/4/2013

Introduction: Need for Quantum Physics

Problems remained from classical mechanics that relativity

didnt explain:

Blackbody Radiation

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by a heated object

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of electrons by an illuminated metal

Spectral Lines

Emission of sharp spectral lines by gas atoms in an electric discharge tube

4 9/4/2013

Development of Quantum Physics

1900 to 1930

Development of ideas of quantum mechanics

Also called wave mechanics

Highly successful in explaining the behavior of atoms, molecules, and nuclei

Quantum Mechanics reduces to classical mechanics when applied

to macroscopic systems

Involved a large number of physicists

Planck introduced basic ideas

Mathematical developments and interpretations involved such people as

Einstein, Bohr, Schrdinger, de Broglie, Heisenberg, Born and Dirac

5 9/4/2013

26.1 Blackbody Radiation

An object at any temperature is known to emit

electromagnetic radiation

Sometimes called thermal radiation

Stefans Law describes the total power radiated

The spectrum of the radiation depends on the temperature and

properties of the object

4

P AeT o =

emissivity

Stefans constant

6 9/4/2013

Blackbody

Blackbody is an idealized system that absorbs incident

radiation of all wavelengths

If it is heated to a certain temperature, it starts radiate

electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths

Cavity is a good real-life approximation to a blackbody

7 9/4/2013

Blackbody Radiation Graph

Experimental data for

distribution of energy in

blackbody radiation

As the temperature increases,

the total amount of energy

increases

Shown by the area under

the curve

As the temperature increases,

the peak of the distribution

shifts to shorter wavelengths

8 9/4/2013

Wiens Displacement Law

The wavelength of the peak of the blackbody distribution

was found to follow Weins Displacement Law

max

T = 0.2898 x 10

-2

m K

max

is the wavelength at the curves peak

T is the absolute temperature of the object emitting the radiation

9 9/4/2013

The Ultraviolet Catastrophe

Classical theory did not match

the experimental data

At long wavelengths, the

match is good

Rayleigh-Jeans law

At short wavelengths, classical

theory predicted infinite energy

At short wavelengths,

experiment showed no energy

This contradiction is called the

ultraviolet catastrophe

4

2 ckT

P

t

=

10 9/4/2013

Plancks Resolution

Planck hypothesized that the blackbody radiation was produced by

resonators

Resonators were submicroscopic charged oscillators

The resonators could only have discrete energies

E

n

= n h

n is called the quantum number

is the frequency of vibration

h is Plancks constant, h=6.626 x 10

-34

J s

Key point is quantized energy states

11 9/4/2013

QUICK QUIZ

A photon (quantum of light) is reflected from a mirror. True or false:

(a) Because a photon has a zero mass, it does not exert a force on

the mirror.

(b) Although the photon has energy, it cannot transfer any energy to

the surface because it has zero mass.

(c) The photon carries momentum, and when it reflects off the mirror,

it undergoes a change in momentum and exerts a force on

the mirror.

(d) Although the photon carries momentum, its change in momentum

is zero when it reflects from the mirror, so it cannot exert a

force on the mirror.

(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) False

p Ft A =

12 9/4/2013

27.2 Photoelectric Effect

When light is incident on certain metallic surfaces, electrons are

emitted from the surface

This is called the photoelectric effect

The emitted electrons are called photoelectrons

The effect was first discovered by Hertz

The successful explanation of the effect was given by Einstein in

1905

Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for paper on electromagnetic radiation, of

which the photoelectric effect was a part

13 9/4/2013

Photoelectric Effect Schematic

When light strikes E,

photoelectrons are emitted

Electrons collected at C and

passing through the ammeter

are a current in the circuit

C is maintained at a positive

potential by the power supply

14 9/4/2013

Photoelectric Current/Voltage Graph

The current increases with

intensity, but reaches a

saturation level for large Vs

No current flows for voltages

less than or equal to V

s

, the

stopping potential

The stopping potential is

independent of the radiation

intensity

15 9/4/2013

Features Not Explained by Classical

Physics/Wave Theory

No electrons are emitted if the incident light frequency is

below some cutoff frequency that is characteristic of the

material being illuminated

The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is

independent of the light intensity

The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons

increases with increasing light frequency

Electrons are emitted from the surface almost

instantaneously, even at low intensities

16 9/4/2013

Einsteins Explanation

A tiny packet of light energy, called a photon, would be emitted

when a quantized oscillator jumped from one energy level to the

next lower one

Extended Plancks idea of quantization to electromagnetic

radiation

The photons energy would be E = h

Each photon can give all its energy to an electron in the metal

The maximum kinetic energy of the liberated photoelectron is

KE = h

is called the work function of the metal

17 9/4/2013

Explanation of Classical Problems

The effect is not observed below a certain cutoff

frequency since the photon energy must be greater than

or equal to the work function

Without this, electrons are not emitted, regardless of the intensity

of the light

The maximum KE depends only on the frequency and

the work function, not on the intensity

The maximum KE increases with increasing frequency

The effect is instantaneous since there is a one-to-one

interaction between the photon and the electron

18 9/4/2013

Verification of Einsteins Theory

Experimental observations of a

linear relationship between KE

and frequency confirm

Einsteins theory

The x-intercept is the cutoff

frequency

c

f

h

u

=

19 9/4/2013

27.3 Application: Photocells

Photocells are an application of the photoelectric effect

When light of sufficiently high frequency falls on the cell,

a current is produced

Examples

Streetlights, garage door openers, elevators

20 9/4/2013

27.4 The Compton Effect

Compton directed a beam of x-rays toward a block of graphite

He found that the scattered x-rays had a slightly longer wavelength

that the incident x-rays

This means they also had less energy

The amount of energy reduction depended on the angle at which the

x-rays were scattered

The change in wavelength is called the Compton shift

21 9/4/2013

Compton Scattering

Compton assumed the

photons acted like other

particles in collisions

Energy and momentum

were conserved

The shift in wavelength is

) cos 1 (

c m

h

e

o

u = = A

Compton wavelength

22 9/4/2013

Compton Scattering

The quantity h/m

e

c is called the Compton wavelength

Compton wavelength = 0.00243 nm

Very small compared to visible light

The Compton shift depends on the scattering angle and not on

the wavelength

Experiments confirm the results of Compton scattering and

strongly support the photon concept

23 9/4/2013

Problem: Compton scattering

A beam of 0.68-nm photons undergoes Compton scattering from free

electrons. What are the energy and momentum of the photons that

emerge at a 45 angle with respect to the incident beam?

24 9/4/2013

QUICK QUIZ 1

An x-ray photon is scattered by an electron. The frequency of the

scattered photon relative to that of the incident photon (a)

increases, (b) decreases, or (c) remains the same.

(b). Some energy is transferred to the electron in the scattering

process. Therefore, the scattered photon must have less energy

(and hence, lower frequency) than the incident photon.

25 9/4/2013

QUICK QUIZ 2

A photon of energy E

0

strikes a free electron, with the scattered photon

of energy E moving in the direction opposite that of the incident

photon. In this Compton effect interaction, the resulting kinetic energy

of the electron is (a) E

0

, (b) E , (c) E

0

E , (d) E

0

+ E , (e) none of the

above.

(c). Conservation of energy requires the kinetic energy given to

the electron be equal to the difference between the energy of the

incident photon and that of the scattered photon.

26 9/4/2013

QUICK QUIZ 2

A photon of energy E

0

strikes a free electron, with the scattered photon

of energy E moving in the direction opposite that of the incident

photon. In this Compton effect interaction, the resulting kinetic energy

of the electron is (a) E

0

, (b) E , (c) E

0

E , (d) E

0

+ E , (e) none of the

above.

(c). Conservation of energy requires the kinetic energy given to

the electron be equal to the difference between the energy of the

incident photon and that of the scattered photon.

27 9/4/2013

27.8 Photons and Electromagnetic Waves

Light has a dual nature. It exhibits both wave and particle

characteristics

Applies to all electromagnetic radiation

The photoelectric effect and Compton scattering offer evidence for

the particle nature of light

When light and matter interact, light behaves as if it were composed of

particles

Interference and diffraction offer evidence of the wave nature of light

28 9/4/2013

28.9 Wave Properties of Particles

In 1924, Louis de Broglie postulated that because

photons have wave and particle characteristics, perhaps

all forms of matter have both properties

Furthermore, the frequency and wavelength of matter

waves can be determined

The de Broglie wavelength of a particle is

The frequency of matter waves is

mv

h

=

h

E

=

29 9/4/2013

The Davisson-Germer Experiment

They scattered low-energy electrons from a nickel target

They followed this with extensive diffraction measurements from

various materials

The wavelength of the electrons calculated from the diffraction data

agreed with the expected de Broglie wavelength

This confirmed the wave nature of electrons

Other experimenters have confirmed the wave nature of other

particles

30 9/4/2013

Review problem: the wavelength of a proton

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for a proton (m

p

=1.67x10

-27

kg )

moving with a speed of 1.00 x 10

7

m/s.

31 9/4/2013

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for a proton (m

p

=1.67x10

-27

kg ) moving with a

speed of 1.00 x 10

7

m/s.

Given:

v = 1.0 x 10

7

m/s

Find:

p

= ?

Given the velocity and a mass of the proton we can

compute its wavelength

p

p

h

m v

=

Or numerically,

( )

( )( )

34

14

31 7

6.63 10

3.97 10

1.67 10 1.00 10

ps

J s

m

kg m s

= =

32 9/4/2013

QUICK QUIZ 3

A non-relativistic electron and a non-relativistic proton are moving

and have the same de Broglie wavelength. Which of the

following are also the same for the two particles: (a) speed, (b)

kinetic energy, (c) momentum, (d) frequency?

(c). Two particles with the same de Broglie wavelength will have the same

momentum p = mv. If the electron and proton have the same momentum, they

cannot have the same speed because of the difference in their masses. For the

same reason, remembering that KE = p

2

/2m, they cannot have the same kinetic

energy. Because the kinetic energy is the only type of energy an isolated particle can

have, and we have argued that the particles have different energies, Equation 27.15

tells us that the particles do not have the same frequency.

33 9/4/2013

QUICK QUIZ 2

A non-relativistic electron and a non-relativistic proton are moving

and have the same de Broglie wavelength. Which of the

following are also the same for the two particles: (a) speed, (b)

kinetic energy, (c) momentum, (d) frequency?

(c). Two particles with the same de Broglie wavelength will have the same

momentum p = mv. If the electron and proton have the same momentum, they

cannot have the same speed because of the difference in their masses. For the

same reason, remembering that KE = p

2

/2m, they cannot have the same kinetic

energy. Because the kinetic energy is the only type of energy an isolated particle can

have, and we have argued that the particles have different energies, Equation 27.15

tells us that the particles do not have the same frequency.

34 9/4/2013

The Electron Microscope

The electron microscope depends

on the wave characteristics of

electrons

Microscopes can only resolve details

that are slightly smaller than the

wavelength of the radiation used to

illuminate the object

The electrons can be accelerated to

high energies and have small

wavelengths

35 9/4/2013

27.10 The Wave Function

In 1926 Schrdinger proposed a wave equation that

describes the manner in which matter waves change in

space and time

Schrdingers wave equation is a key element in

quantum mechanics

Schrdingers wave equation is generally solved for the

wave function,

i H

t

A+

= +

A

36 9/4/2013

The Wave Function

The wave function depends on the particles position and

the time

The value of ||

2

at some location at a given time is

proportional to the probability of finding the particle at

that location at that time

37 9/4/2013

27.11 The Uncertainty Principle

When measurements are made, the experimenter is

always faced with experimental uncertainties in the

measurements

Classical mechanics offers no fundamental barrier to

ultimate refinements in measurements

Classical mechanics would allow for measurements with

arbitrarily small uncertainties

38 9/4/2013

The Uncertainty Principle

Quantum mechanics predicts that a barrier to measurements

with ultimately small uncertainties does exist

In 1927 Heisenberg introduced the uncertainty principle

If a measurement of position of a particle is made with precision x

and a simultaneous measurement of linear momentum is made with

precision p, then the product of the two uncertainties can never be

smaller than h/4t

39 9/4/2013

The Uncertainty Principle

Mathematically,

It is physically impossible to measure simultaneously the

exact position and the exact linear momentum of a

particle

Another form of the principle deals with energy and time:

t

> A A

4

h

p x

x

t

> A A

4

h

t E

40 9/4/2013

Thought Experiment the Uncertainty

Principle

A thought experiment for viewing an electron with a powerful

microscope

In order to see the electron, at least one photon must bounce off it

During this interaction, momentum is transferred from the photon to

the electron

Therefore, the light that allows you to accurately locate the electron

changes the momentum of the electron

41 9/4/2013

Problem: macroscopic uncertainty

A 50.0-g ball moves at 30.0 m/s. If its speed is measured to an

accuracy of 0.10%, what is the minimum uncertainty in its

position?

42 9/4/2013

A 50.0-g ball moves at 30.0 m/s. If its speed is measured to an accuracy of 0.10%,

what is the minimum uncertainty in its position?

Given:

v = 30 m/s

ov = 0.10%

m = 50.0 g

Find:

ox = ?

Notice that the ball is non-relativistic. Thus, p = mv,

and uncertainty in measuring momentum is

( ) ( )

( )( )

2 3 2

50.0 10 1.0 10 30 1.5 10

p m v m v v

kg m s kg m s

o

A = A =

= =

Thus, uncertainty relation implies

( )

( )

24

32

3

6.63 10

3.5 10

4

4 1.5 10

h J s

x m

p

kg m s

t

t

A > = =

A

43 9/4/2013

Problem: Macroscopic measurement

A 0.50-kg block rests on the icy surface of a frozen pond, which we

can assume to be frictionless. If the location of the block is measured

to a precision of 0.50 cm, what speed must the block acquire because

of the measurement process?

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