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Information System and

Management

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MIS

IS

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Components of an Information Systems

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Components of an Information Systems

1. Resources of people (end users and IS specialists, system


analyst, programmers, data administrators etc.),
2. Hardware (Physical computer equipments and associate
device, machines and media),
3. Software (programs and procedures),
4. Data (data and knowledge bases), and
5. Networks (communications media and network support)

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Resources of An Information
Systems

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Employees

Corporate
Databases Corporate
databases
of intranet
of
external
internal
data
data Decision
support
systems

Transaction Databases Management Executive


Business processing of information Application support
transactions systems valid systems databases systems
transactions

Drill-down reports Expert


Exception reports systems
Demand reports
Operational Key-indicator reports
databases
Input and Scheduled
error list reports

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People Resources
 End users-accountants, salesperson, engineers, clerks,
customers, or managers.
 IS Specialists-are people who actually develop and operate
information systems.
 They include systems analysts, programmers, testers,
computer operators, and other managerial, technical, and
clerical IS personnel.

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Hardware Resources
 Machines as computers and other equipment along with all data
media, objects on which data is recorded, from sheets of paper to
magnetic disks.
 Computer systems, which consist of central processing units
containing microprocessors, and a variety of interconnected
peripheral devices. Examples are microcomputer systems,
midrange computer systems, and large mainframe computer
systems.
 Computer peripherals, which are devices such as a keyboard or
electronic mouse for input of data and commands, a video screen
or printer for output of information, and magnetic or optical disks
for storage of data resources

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Software Resources

 includes all sets of information processing


instructions.
 This generic concept of software includes not only
the sets of operating instructions called programs,
which direct and control computer hardware,
 but also the sets of information processing
instructions needed by people, called procedures

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Software Resources
 System software, such as an operating system
program, which controls and supports the operations
of a computer system.
 Application software, which are programs that
direct processing for a particular use of computers
by end users. Examples are a sales analysis
program, a payroll program, and a word processing
program.
 Procedures, which are operating instructions for the
people, who will use an information system.
Examples are instructions for filling out a paper
form or using a software package.

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Data Resources
 Data is raw material of information systems, database with criteria:
 Comprehensiveness means, that all the data about the subject are
actually present in the database.
 Non-redundancy means, that each individual piece of data exists
only once in the database.
 Appropriate structure means, that the data are stored in such a
way as to minimize the cost of expected processing and storage.
 The data resources of IS are typically organized into:
 Processed and organized data-Databases
 Knowledge in a variety of forms such as facts, rules, and case
examples about successful business practices.

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Network Resources
 Telecommunications networks like the Internet, intranets, and
extranets.
 Telecommunications networks consist of computers,
communications processors, and other devices interconnected by
communications media and controlled by communications
software.
 Communications media
 Network support- people, hardware, software, and data resources
that directly support the operation and use of a communications
network.

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS ACTIVITIES

 Input of Data Resources


 Processing of Data into Information
 Output of Information Products
 Storage of Data Resources
 Control of System Performance
 Information Quality

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Input of Data Resources
 Data about business transactions ,captured and prepared for
processing
 data entry activities such as recording and editing.
 End users typically record data, about transactions on some type
of physical medium such as a paper form, or enter it directly into
a computer system.
 Variety of editing activities to ensure that they have recorded
data correctly.
 Once entered, data may be transferred onto a machine-readable
medium such as magnetic disk or tape, until needed for
processing.

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Output of Information
Products
 Information in various forms is transmitted to
end users and made available to them in the
output activity.
 Common information products include
messages, reports, forms, and graphic
images, which may be provided by video
displays, audio responses, paper products,
and multimedia.

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Processing of Data into
Information
 Data is typically subjected to processing
activities such as calculating, comparing,
sorting, classifying, and summarizing.
 These activities organize, analyze, and
manipulate data, thus converting them into
information for end users
 Quality of data,updation.

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Information Quality

 Info outdated, inaccurate, or hard to understand


would not be very meaningful, useful, or valuable to
you or other end users.
 People want information of high quality, that is,
information products whose characteristics,
attributes, or qualities help make it valuable to them.

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Storage of Data Resources

 Storage is a basic system component of


information systems.
 Storage is the information system activity in
which data and information are retained in an
organized manner for later use.

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Control of System Performance

 An information system should produce feedback


about its input, processing, output, and storage
activities.
 This feedback must be monitored and evaluated to
determine if the system is meeting established
performance standards.
 Then appropriate system activities must be
adjusted so that proper information products are
produced for end users.

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TYPES OF INFORMATION
SYSTEMS

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Types of IS
 For most businesses, there are a variety of
requirements for information.
 Senior managers need information to help with their
business planning.
 Middle management need more detailed information
to help them monitor and control business activities.
 Employees with operational roles need information
to help them carry out their duties.

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OSS
 It produce a variety of information products for internal and
external use in an organization.
 The role of a business firm's operations support systems is to
efficiently process business transactions, control industrial
processes, support enterprise communications and
collaboration, and update corporate databases.
 Operation support systems again can be categorized as :
 Transaction processing systems

 Process control systems

 Enterprise collaboration systems

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OSS Types

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MSS
 When information systems focus on providing information and
support for effective decision-making by managers, they are
called management support systems.
 Providing information and support for decision-making by all
types of managers (from top executives to middle managers to
project supervisors) is a complex task.
 Conceptually, several major types of information systems
support a variety of managerial end user responsibilities :
 Management information systems,

 Decision support systems, and

 Executive information systems.

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MSS Types

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