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Propane Fuel Systems

Presented by

Kubota Engine America and Kubota Canada Ltd

Characteristics of Propane

Also known as LPG, Liquified Petroleum Gas. LPG is heavier than air. LPG is a by-product of oil and natural gas refining. 1USgallon (3.79L) of LPG will create 272USgallons (1030L) of gas.

Characteristics of Propane

1USgal. (3.79L) of LPG at 24 : 1 ratio will create 1300ft3 (36.8m3) or 10,000USgal. (37854L) of combustible gas. In its liquid state it will boil at 44oF.(-42oC) LPG ignites between 957oF (514oC) to 1090oF (588oC). Gasoline ignites at approx. 780oF (416oC). LPG is a colorless and odorless gas. The odor is added for safety.

Propane Safety
LPG is a highly flammable fuel contained under pressure and may cause fires and/or explosions if improperly used. LPG in its liquid state (-44oF / 42oC) can freeze skin. When possible, turn off the LPG fuel supply and run the engine until it runs out of fuel.

Propane Safety

Perform repairs in a well ventilated area. Use only approved fittings and line. Leak check all fittings, lines, and joints after repair. Always front seat or back seat the main supply valve. Never check for leaks with a flame.

Benefits of Propane
Clean Burning. Longer Engine Life. Reduced Emissions. Higher Octane (112). Easily Transported and Stored. Non Poisonous. Will Evaporate quickly if spilled.

Basic Propane System

Pressure Tank Shut Off Valve Filter Electric Shut Off Valve Vaporizer Carburetor / Mixer Engine

Manual valve


Minimum operating pressure= 0.35Kg/cm

Propane Vaporizer
Primary Chamber. Liquid fuel is decompressed and evaporated. Secondary Chamber. Decompresses gas to approximately atmospheric pressure. Water Passage. The engine coolant is used to supply heat to evaporate the LPG. Vacuum Lock Chamber. Locks fuel in the primary chamber when engine is off. Not Field Serviceable.


Water Passage Secondary Chamber

Primary Chamber Vacuum Lock Chamber

Primary Chamber

Primary Chamber Primary Diaphragm Spring

Primary Valve Lever Spring

Primary Diaphragm Primary Lever Primary Valve and Seat

Secondary Chamber
Secondary Valve and Seat

Secondary Lever Spring Secondary Valve Lever Secondary Diaphragm Diaphragm Pin Balance Spring

Atmosphere Chamber
Secondary Chamber

Vacuum Lock Chamber

Primary Chamber

Vacuum Lock Diaphragm Diaphragm Spring Vacuum Lock Chamber Secondary Chamber

Carburetor and Mixer

Throttling Device. Creates Pressure Differential. Blends Air and Fuel. Multiple Fuel Capability. Gasoline and LPG Valves are Normally Closed. Shuts Off Fuel.

Gasoline Mode

Venturi Effect

Float Gasoline

Solenoid Energized

LPG Mode
Solenoid Energized

Venturi Effect

From Vaporizer


Throttle Plate Venturi Effect LPG Main Jet

Gaseous Propane from Vaporizer

Propane Installation
Vaporizer must be mounted vertically. Gaseous line must be 300mm +/- 20mm in length. (11.8+/-.8) Vaporizer, air needs to be bled from water jacket after installation. All lines must be routed and secured to avoid chaffing. Vaporizer must be isolated from vibration.

Propane Troubleshooting
No Start
Fuel available. Power to Solenoids. Vacuum Source at Vaporizer. 4(102mm) minimum. Flooded. Disconnect vacuum line or unplug solenoid to clear. Look for Frost. Throttle Plate Closed.

Low Power
Shut Off Valves Fully Open. Look for Frost. Check Vacuum Line for Cracks or Restrictions. Restricted Coolant Lines to Vaporizer. Atmosphere Port Blocked.

Propane Troubleshooting

Engine Dies
Fuel Available. Look for Frost. Coolant to Vaporizer. Power to Solenoids. Vacuum to Vaporizer. Atmosphere Port Blocked.

Engine Runs Rich

Ruptured Primary or Vacuum Lock Diaphragm. Air Filter. Gasoline Solenoid not Closing Properly. Vaporizer Valves not
Seating Properly.