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UNIT 5 DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT

INTRODUCTION TO DISPLASEMENT MEASUREMENT

Displacement is thought of in terms of motion of few millimeters (mm) or less. The measurement of displacement is made frequently to relate to some other measurement and displacement transducers are fundamental components of any instrumentation system.

INTRODUCTION TO DISPLASEMENT MEASUREMENT Displacement is closely associated with motion and position. Displacement can be measured by both mechanical and electrical methods.

INTRODUCTION TO DISPLASEMENT MEASUREMENT


Some of the electrical methods are: Resistance strain gauge Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) Capacitive transducer.

POTENTIOMETER SENSOR, TYPES, CONSTRUCTION,


OPERATION AND ERRORS

It is a primary transducer. It is used to sense the motion of a body. It is a translational displacement transducer. It converts the linear motion or the angular motion of a rotating shaft in change in resistance.

POTENTIOMETER SENSOR, TYPES, CONSTRUCTION,


OPERATION AND ERRORS

Types of potentiometer sensors are:


Linear displacement potentiometer. Angular displacement potentiometer.

Linear Displacement Potentiometer

POTENTIOMETER SENSOR, TYPES, CONSTRUCTION,


OPERATION AND ERRORS

It consists of a resistance element, housing, wiper, shaft seal and bearing and the shaft. The resistive element can be classified as wire wound, conductive plastic and hybrid. It is a variable resistor whose resistance is varied by the movement of a wiper over a resistance element. The resolution of potentiometer is depends on the construction of the resistance element.

POTENTIOMETER SENSOR, TYPES, CONSTRUCTION,


OPERATION AND ERRORS

The wire wound resistance will gives high resistance value in small space. On wire wound resistance elements provide improved resolution and life. On wire wound resistance elements are more temperature sensitive, have a high wiper contact resistance and can tolerate only moderate wiper currents.

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH


It is suitable for no contact sensing of metallic object. An inductive proximity switch is a sensor that can only see metal. It works on electromagnetic principle.

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH


They are inherently resistant to dust, humidity and oil in industrial environment. It generates an electromagnetic field to sense metal objects passing close to its face.

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH


Inductive proximity sensor operates under the electrical principle of inductance. It consists of coil, oscillator, trigger circuit, and an output.

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH


The oscillator is an inductive capacitive tuned circuit that creates a radio frequency. The trigger circuit monitors the oscillators amplitude. The electromagnetic field produced by the oscillator is emitted from the coil away from the face of the sensor.

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH


When a metal target enters the field, eddy currents circulate within the target. This causes a load on the sensor, decreasing the amplitude of the electromagnetic field. As the target approaches the sensor the eddy currents increase, increasing the load on the oscillator and further decreasing the amplitude of the field.

INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SWITCH


As the target moves away from the sensor, the oscillators amplitude increases.

Inductive Proximity Sensor Family

Inductive Proximity Sensor Family

Inductive Proximity Sensor Family

DIGITAL ENCODER
A digital encoder converts the physical variable to a parallel digital output. Example of a digital encoder is a digital shaft encoder for angular position measurement.

Digital Shaft Encoder


A digital shaft encoder is a circular coded disc driven by a rotating shaft. The circular disc is divided into a certain no. of sectors (Ns) and each sector is partitioned n to a no. of tracks (Nt).

Digital Shaft Encoder


Relation between the no. of sectors & tracks is Ns=2^Nt. For generating a 4-bit binary no. from the encoder, the no. of tracks should be 4, so the total no. of sectors is 16.

Digital Shaft Encoder

Digital Shaft Encoder


The total angular revolution of 360 is divided into 16 sectors; the encoder can encode a minimum of 22.5 angular displacement. The sensitivity and resolution of measurement is increased by increasing the no. of sectors, which is possible only by increasing the no. of tracks

Digital Shaft Encoder


There are three methods of coding the tracks & thereby three encoding or reading methods: Contact encoder. Magnetic encoder. Optical encoder.

CONTACT ENCODER
In a contact encoder disc, the tracks are inscribed by a conducting and a non conducting layer. A conducting layer in a track results a binary 1, whereas a non conducting layer gives a 0 as the output of the reading head. Brushes are used as the reading heads that collect the electrical voltage or current.

CONTACT ENCODER

MAGNETIC ENCODER
In a magnetic encoder the tracks are coated with a magnetic material over which the pattern of digital codes is inscribed. The magnetic spots are either magnetized or no magnetized to represent a binary 1 or 0. A tiny pickup coil reads the magnetic spots. Life of the magnetic encoders is longer than that of the contact encoders.

MAGNETIC ENCODER