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M.sc Research proposal Principal Investigator : Prof.Dr.M.A M.

A Kamal Researcher: M AAKIF ISHAQ (2k12-Ft-Msc-Tr-07) University of Engineering and Technology Pakistan

Contents
Introduction
Literature review Problem Statetement

Aims and Objectives


Methodology Utilization Refrences

Introduction
Aggregates constitute approx. 95% of asphalt mix by

weight. The durable asphalt mix is attributed to the following: Properties of aggregates. (Physical and chemical) Properties of binder. Percentage of binder used. Arrangement of aggregate particles (gradation). Among all most important is last one

Literature Review
The particle size distribution or gradation of an aggregate

is one of the most important characteristics in determining how an aggregate will perform as a pavement material. In HMA, gradation helps to determine almost every important property including stiffness, stability, permeability, workability, fatigue resistance, frictional resistance and resistance to moisture damage. (Roberts et al 1996). The structure of the aggregate skeleton is closely related to the rutting and fatigue characteristics, as well as the permeability, durability and compact ability of HMA (Roque et al, 2006).

Literature Review
The Bailey method was originally developed to

improve the rut resistance of HMA mixes. Baileys method is not meant to be a complete design method for HMA mixes. Rather it allows the engineer to assess whether coarse aggregate interlock will exist in the mix (Vavrik et al, 2002).

Why Aggregate Gradations is Important?


After selection of aggregates and binder of appropriate

quality the most important thing is the arrangement of aggregate particles. Most of the compressive strength and resistance to movement under truck loads comes from the aggregate Structure. Without Controlling this it is not possible to obtain the desired results. Stronger the packing Stronger will be the load bearing capacity.

Problem Statement
Road failures in the form cracking and rutting are a

common phenomenon faced throughout the world. Pakistan is also a victim of such failures. It is believed that fatigue cracking is the result of pavement structure and load of the traffic and permanent deformation/ rutting is directly related to shear strength of the mix, which is controlled by aggregate properties.

Problem statement
Aggregate Gradations and aggregate packing are most

governing parameters in asphaltic mixture properties. Without controlling this pavement will not serve effectively .In Pakistan we are continually using conventional gradations for asphalt mixtures. Conventional gradations is based on experience and it is also depends upon the designer experience. So it vary from designer to designer and as a result sometime poor packing Results.

Problems relevant to Packing characteristics


Poor packing characteristics leads to
Rutting

Fatigue cracking
Moisture Damage Bleeding Segregation of Mix

Aims and Objectives


The purpose of my research is to study: Packing characteristics of asphalt mixtures of Pakistan using Conventional gradations on UBBAN SHAH Quarry. Study of effect of packing characteristics under different environmental and traffic loadings in laboratory. Comparison of the packing characteristics using conventional gradations with performance based experience gradation (Bailey Method) If Bailey Method gives good performance characteristics then implementation Of Bailey Method in Field

Methodology
Aggregate packing characteristics will b studied in

laboratory by preparing Marshall Mold at optimum bitumen content using various Conventional gradations. Marshall Mold at optimum bitumen content using various Bailey method of gradations Studying Aggregate packing characteristics using BAILEY Method of gradation and conventional .

Methodology
Packing characteristics of Conventional and Bailey

Method of gradations will be compared at optimum bitumen content. Performance testing using wheel tracker and UTM 5P will be topped up . Results from this performance test will be analyzed for each gradation, and results of conventional gradations will be compared with Bailey.

Experimental Equipment
Marshall compacter, Marshall stability Machine,

Theoretical Specific Gravity apparatus,


Wheel tracker, Asphalt Pavement Analyzer, UTM 5P.Marhall Mixer, Roller Compactor.

Aggregate Impact value Los Angeles Abrasion Aggregate Performance Test

Specific Gravity
Fine Aggregate Angularity Bulk Density Sieve Analysis Mixing

Methodology

Literature Review
Material Collection Marshall Mix Design Laboratory Testing

Preparation of Marshall Moulds Bulk Specific Gravity Theoretical Max. Specific Gravity Stability Marshall Stability Test Flow optimum bitumen calculation Voids Calculation UTM 5P Wheel Tracking Test Hamburg Asphalt Pavement Analyzer

ITS, Mr, creep


Rut Depth Rut Depth Rut Depth

Utilization

Aggregate Packing characteristics of various gradations will be analyzed and will be compared with Bailey Method of gradations. As Bailey Method is currently being used in USA, Australia, and Canada as well as in UAE and it is showing better results other than conventional gradations. If Bailey Method gives better results then we will introduce it in Filed and it will be great success and pavement distresses that are due to poor packing characteristics will be reduced and maintenance cost will be reduced

References
1] Christensen D et al. A mix design manual for hot-mix asphalt. NCHRP 9-33 report; 2009. [2] Button JW, Perdomo D, Lytton RL. Influence of aggregate on rutting of asphalt concrete pavements. Transportation research record 1259. Transportation research board: Washington DC;1990. p. 14152. [3] Anthony DS, Bahia HU. The effect of fine aggregate angularity, asphalt content and performance graded asphalts on hot mix asphalt performance. WisDOT Highway research study no. 0092-45-98; 2003. [4] Gaudette BE, Welke RA. Investigation of crushed aggregates for bituminous mixtures. Michigan department of state and highway transportation. Report No. TB-58; 1977. [5] Lottman RR, Goetz WH. Effect of crushed gravel fine aggregate on the strength of asphaltic surfacing mixtures. National sand and gravel association circular no. 63; 1956. [6] Dukatz EL. Aggregate properties related to pavement performance. In: Proceedings of the association of asphalt paving technologists vol. 58; 1989. [7] Vallerga BA, Seed HB, Monismith CL, Cooper RS. Effect of shape, size, and roughness of aggregate particles on the strength of granular materials. Special technical publication, No. 212, ASTM; 1957.