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MUSCLES AND ITS PHYSIOLOGY

KARISHMA JAIN & POOJA JAGIASI 2ND YEAR 2010

TYPES OF MUSCLES
They are of 3 types:
Skeletal Smooth Cardiac

Skeletal Muscle
Human body contains over 400 skeletal muscles 40-50% of total body weight Functions of skeletal muscle

Force production for locomotion and breathing Force production for postural support Heat production during cold stress They are also called as voluntary muscle.

Connective Tissue Covering Skeletal Muscle


Epimysium

Surrounds entire muscle Perimysium Surrounds bundles of muscle fiber or Fasciculi Endomysium Surrounds individual muscle fibers

Muscle Fiber Types


TYPE I FIBERS Slow-twitch fibers Slow-oxidative fibers Highly resistant to fatigue Red in colour

TYPE IIA FIBERS Intermediate fibers Fast oxidative glycolytic Resistant to fatigue red in colour

TYPE IIB FIBERS Fast fibers Fast glycolytic fibers Easily gets fatigued
White in colour

Properties of Muscle Fiber Types


EXCITABILITY

Response of an tissue to stimulation CONTRACTILITY Internal events of the muscle which are manifested by change in length or tension of the muscle fibers. They are of 2 types A. ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION B. ISOTONIC CONTRACTION MUSCLE TONE Continuous and partial contraction of the muscles with certain degrees of tension

Types of Muscle Contraction

Isometric
Muscle exerts force without changing length Pulling against immovable object Postural muscles

Isotonic (dynamic) Muscle exerts force with change in length A. Concentric Muscle shortens during force production B. Eccentric Muscle produces force but length increases

STRUCTURES RELATED TO MUSCLE FIBERS


Sarcolemma

Muscle fibers cell membrane Myofibrils Threadlike strands within muscle fibers Sarcomere Z-line, M-line, H-zone, A-band & I-band Actin (thin filament) Myosin (thick filament)

MICROSTRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE

ACTIN & MYOSIN RELATIONSHIP


THIN FILAMENT
Actin-binding site for myosin Troponin with calcium binding site Tropomyosin prevents interaction

THICK FILAMENT
Myosin head Myosin tails

b/w actin and myosin

SARCOTUBULAR SYSTEM
SARCOPLASM

Cytoplasm within muscle fibers.

WITHIN THE SARCOPLASM


A. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Storage sites for calcium B. Transverse tubules C. Terminal cisternae D. Mitochondria

Within the Sarcoplasm

Excitation Contraction Coupling

Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Depolarization of motor end plate (excitation) is coupled to muscular contraction

Nerve impulse travels down T-tubules and causes release of Ca++ from SR
A. Ca++ binds to troponin and causes position change in tropomyosin, exposing active sites on actin B. Permits strong binding state between actin and myosin and contraction occurs

Muscular Contraction
The sliding filament model
Muscle shortening occurs

due to the movement of the actin filament over the myosin filament Formation of cross bridges between actin and myosin filaments Power stroke 1 power stroke only shorten muscle 1% Reduction in the distance between Z-lines of the sarcomere

SEQUENCE OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTION


Stimulation of muscle fibers Generation of action potential in muscle Spreading of action potential through sarcolemma and T tubules Arrival of action potential at cisternae of L tubules Release of calcium ions from cisternae into sarcoplasm Binding of calcium ions to troponin C and change in position of

tropomyosin
Exposure of active site of F actin Binding of myosin head with F actin and power stroke in myosin

head
Sliding of actin filaments over myosin
Muscular contraction

Energy for Muscle Contraction


ATP is required for muscle contraction
Myosin ATPase breaks down ATP as fiber contracts

Sources of ATP
A. Phosphocreatine (PC) B. Glycolysis C. Oxidative phosphorylation

MUSCULAR RELAXTION
Pumping of calcium ions into L tubules
Release of calcium ions from troponin C Detachment of myosin head from F actin Muscular relaxation

REFERENCE
Physiology Sembulingam
Joint structure and function cynthia norkin Human physiology A.K.Jain