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Unit 7

Common Diseases and


Conditions of Body Systems
Nurse Aide I Course

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 1


Common Diseases and Conditions
of Body Systems
This unit reviews the structure and
function of the body and its systems.
It presents common disorders of each
system and lists the normal changes
that occur with the aging process.
It includes signs and symptoms which
should be reported.
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 2
Common Diseases and Conditions
of Body Systems
(continued)
A basic knowledge of normal anatomy
and physiology will help the nurse aide
to understand the signs and symptoms
of disease, the reasons for the care
given, and the purposes of procedures
that are carried out for the resident’s
comfort, healing and recovery.
In-depth information is not provided.
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 3
Common Diseases and Conditions
of Body Systems
(continued)
It is intended that upon completion of
the unit, the student will have
rudimentary knowledge of the body
systems sufficient to enhance resident
care.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 4


DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 5
7.0 Discuss the makeup of the male
and female body.
7.1 Describe the relationship between
cells, tissues, organs, and systems
of the body.
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 6
Body Systems

Cells
• Building blocks of body
• Microscopic in size
• Cells combine to form tissue

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 7


Body Systems

Tissues
• Cells organized into tissue to
carry on particular activities
(connect, support, absorb,
secrete, protect, direct,
coordinate, allow movement)
• Groups of tissues form organs
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 8
7.1.1 List the organs of the body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 9


Body Systems
Organs
• Made up of several types of tissues
• Carry on special functions
• Some organs in pairs - kidneys and
lungs
• Some organs single – heart, brain,
liver, stomach, intestines, bladder
• Organs combine to form systems
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 10
7.1.2 Identify the systems of the body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 11


Systems
A system is a group of organs that
work together.
Body Systems
• Skeletal • Endocrine
• Muscular • Nervous
• Circulatory • Reproductive
• Respiratory • Integumentary
• Digestive • Sensory
• Urinary
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 12
Body Systems

Systems combine to form the


human body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 13


DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 14
7.2 Identify functions of the skeletal
system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 15


The Skeletal System

• Comprises the
bony framework
of the body

• Has 206
bones
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 16
The Skeletal System
(continued)

FUNCTIONS:
• Support
• Protect
• Movement
• Mineral storage
• Blood cell
production
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 17
The Skeletal System
(continued)

JOINTS - point where


bones meet:
• Immovable – cranium
• Slightly movable -
vertebral discs
• Freely movable -
shoulder, knee, wrist

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 18


The Skeletal System
(continued)

COMPOSITION OF JOINTS:
• Ligament - connects bone
to bone
• Tendon - connects muscle
to bone

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 19


The Skeletal System
(continued)

COMPOSITION OF JOINTS:
• Bursa - fluid filled sac that
allows bones to move easily
over others
• Cartilage – connective tissue
that cushions the joint at end
of bones and between bones
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 20
7.2.1 Discuss common disorders of the
skeletal system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 21


Common Disorders of Skeletal
System
• Osteoporosis - porous bone that
breaks easily

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 22


Common Disorders of Skeletal
System
(continued)
• Fracture - break in bone
– simple - bone broken, skin
intact
– compound - bone broken,
penetrates skin
– comminuted - bone broken,
fragments in tissue
– greenstick - incomplete break
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 23
Common Disorders of Skeletal
System
(continued)
• Arthritis - inflammation of the joints
– osteoarthritis due to stress on
joints
• usually affects weight bearing
joints: knees, hips, vertebrae
and fingers
• aching, stiffness, limited
motion
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 24
Common Disorders of Skeletal
System
(continued)
• Arthritis - inflammation of the joints
– rheumatoid arthritis -
systemic disease
• causes inflammation,
deformity and crippling
• joints painful, stiff,
swollen, red and warm
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 25
Common Disorders of Skeletal
System
(continued)
• Amputation – removal of
all or part of limb
• Sprain - stretched or torn
ligaments or tendons
• Bursitis - inflammation of
bursa causing pain on
movement
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 26
7.2.2 Discuss changes that take place
in the skeletal system due to
aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 27


Skeletal System Changes Due To
Aging
• Bones more porous or brittle
• Joints less flexible
• Postural changes
• Awkward walking patterns
• Slowed recovery from
position changes and
sudden movements
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 28
7.2.3 List observations/situations
relating to skeletal system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 29


Observations/Situations Related to
Skeletal System
• Slow and unsteady body
movement
• Difficulty holding objects
• Complaint of pain in joints
• Swelling, redness and
warmth in joints
• Inability to move joints

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 30


Observations/Situations Related to
Skeletal System
(continued)
• Complaint of pain with
movement
• Complaint of neck or head
pain
• Resident who has fallen
(stay with resident, call for
help, do not move resident
or allow resident to move)
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 31
Observations/Situations Related to
Skeletal System
(continued)
• Resident with cast on arm or leg
– complaint of pain in limb
– swelling of fingers or toes
– pale skin of fingers or toes
– cyanosis and coolness of
fingers or toes
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 32
Observations/Situations Related to
Skeletal System
(continued)
• Resident with cast on arm or leg
– odor or drainage from cast
– inability to move toes or
fingers
– complaint of numbness of
fingers or toes
– drainage from cast
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 33
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 34
7.3 Identify functions of muscles.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 35


The Muscular System

• Provides body with


ability to move
• Over 650 different
muscles that comprise
nearly half the body
weight

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 36


The Muscular System
(continued)
• Functions of muscles
– Allow movement
– Help body stay erect –
posture
– Produce most of body’s heat
– Give body form
– Provide movement of
internal organs
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 37
7.3.1 Discuss common disorders of the
muscular system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 38


Common Disorders of Muscular
System
• Paralysis - loss of voluntary
movement due to neurological
damage such as stroke or trauma
• Multiple sclerosis – weakness of
muscles due to loss of covering on
nerves that control them
• Atrophy – muscle mass decreases
in size
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 39
Common Disorders of Muscular
System
(continued)
• Contracture - permanent shortening
of muscle; joints become ankylosed
(frozen)
• Muscle strain – damage caused by
trauma
• Myalgia - muscle pain
• Torn muscle - tear caused by trauma
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 40
7.3.2 Discuss changes in the muscular
system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 41


Changes in Muscular System
Due to Aging

• Poorer response to stimuli


• Pain when moving, therefore
muscles not used as often
• Less active
• Muscle strength and bulk loss
• Slower muscle - nerve
interaction
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 42
7.3.3 List observations relating to the
muscular system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 43


Observations of Muscular System
to Report

• Difficulty holding or lifting


objects
• Inability to move a body
part
• Difficulty walking
• Loss of muscle strength
and tone
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 44
Observations of Muscular System
to Report
(continued)
• Edema of tissue or joint
• Complaint of muscle pain
• Generalized weakness
and fatigue
• Slow, unsteady body
movement
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 45
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 46
7.4 Identify functions of the circulatory
system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 47


Circulatory System

• Circulation is
continuous
movement of blood
throughout body

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 48


Circulatory System
(continued)

• Functions of circulatory system


– Arteries carry blood with
oxygen and nutrients away
from heart and to cells
– Veins carry waste products
away from cells and to heart

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 49


Blood

• Adult has 5 to 6 quarts (liters)


• Consists of
– water - 90% (plasma)
– blood cells
– carbon dioxide and oxygen
– nutrients, hormones and
enzymes
– waste products
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 50
Blood
(continued)
• Types of blood cells
– Red blood cells - erythrocytes
• carry oxygen from blood to cells
– White blood cells - leukocytes
• fight infection
– Platelets - thrombocytes
• required for clotting to stop
bleeding
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 51
Blood Vessels

• Arteries - carry blood away from heart


• Veins – carry blood to heart

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 52


7.4.1 Discuss how the blood vessels
relate to the pulse and blood
pressure.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 53


Heart

• Tissue (three layers)


– endocardium - smooth,
inner layer
– myocardium – thick,
muscular middle layer
– pericardium – double-
walled membrane that
covers outside of heart

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 54


Heart Chambers
• Heart divided into
right and left side
• Atria – upper
chambers –
receive blood
• Ventricles –
lower chambers
– pump blood to
lungs and body
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 55
Heart Chambers
• Four chambers
– right atrium (1) - receives
blood from two large veins:
• superior vena cava
• inferior vena cava
– right ventricle (2) - receives blood
from right atrium and pumps it to
lungs through pulmonary artery
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 56
Heart Chambers
(continued)
• Four chambers
– left atrium (3) - receives
oxygenated blood from left
and right pulmonary veins
– left ventricle (4) - pumps
blood to aorta, which
delivers blood to all body
parts (except lungs)
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 57
Heart Valves
• Located at entrance and exit of each
ventricle
• Four heart valves

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 58


Heartbeat

• Systole - contraction of heart muscle


• Diastole - relaxation of heart muscle
• Blood pressure – highest and lowest
pressure against walls of blood
vessels as heart contracts and
relaxes
• Pulse - expansion and contraction of
artery
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 59
7.4.2 Discuss common disorders of the
circulatory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 60


Common Disorders of the
Circulatory System
• Arteriosclerosis - walls of arteries
become thick and harden
• Hypertension - high blood pressure
• Peripheral vascular disease -
decrease in flow of blood to
extremities and brain
• Angina pectoris - chest pain
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 61
Common Disorders of the
Circulatory System
(continued)
• Varicose veins - enlarged, twisted
veins usually in legs
• Congestive heart failure -
circulatory congestion caused by
weak pumping of heart muscle
• Myocardial infarction (MI) - heart
attack due to blockage in coronary
arteries
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 62
Common Disorders of the
Circulatory System
(continued)
• Anemia – low red blood cell counts
• Thrombus – blood clot
• Phlebitis – inflammation of vein
• Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits on
walls of arteries that reduce blood
flow

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 63


7.4.3 Discuss changes that occur in
the circulatory system with aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 64


Changes of the Circulatory System
Due To Aging
• Heart muscle less efficient
• Blood pumped with less force
• Arteries lose elasticity and
become narrow
• Blood pressure increases
• Blood chemistry less efficient
• Capillaries become more fragile
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 65
7.4.3 List observations relating to the
circulatory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 66


Observations of the Circulatory
System

• Changes in pulse rate and


blood pressure
• Changes in skin color
• Changes in skin
temperature – coldness

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 67


Observations of the Circulatory
System
(continued)

• Complaint of dizziness and


headaches
• Complaint of pain in chest
and/or indigestion
• Edema in feet and legs
• Shortness of breath

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 68


Observations of the Circulatory
System
(continued)
• Sweating
• Blue color to lips and/or nail beds
• Complaint of tingling sensations
• Memory lapses
• Lack of energy
• Irregular respirations
• Anxiety
• Staring and lack of responsiveness
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 69
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 70
7.5 Identify the function and structure
of the respiratory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 71


The Respiratory System
• Respiration means to breathe in
oxygen and breathe out carbon
dioxide
• Exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide necessary for life

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 72


The Respiratory System
(continued)
• Process
– External respiration - oxygen and
carbon dioxide exchanged between
lungs and blood
– Internal respiration - oxygen and
carbon dioxide exchanged between
blood stream and cells

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 73


The Respiratory System
Structure
• Oral cavity – mouth
• Pharynx – throat
• Larynx - voice box
• Trachea – windpipe
• Bronchi - right and left
• Bronchioles - smallest branches of
bronchi
• Alveoli - air sacs covered with
capillaries
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 74
The Respiratory System
Structure
(continued)

• Nose - lined with mucous


membrane
– air filtered by cilia
– mucous membrane
warms and moistens air

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 75


The Respiratory System
Structure
(continued)

• Lungs
– right - 3 lobes
– left - 2 lobes

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 76


The Respiratory System
Structure
(continued)

• Pleura – membrane that encloses


lungs
• Diaphragm - muscle that separates
the chest and abdomen
– contraction - draws air into lungs
– relaxation - forces air out of lungs
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 77
7.5.1 Review common disorders of the
respiratory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 78


Common Disorders of Respiratory
System
• URI – Upper Respiratory Infection -
infection of nose, throat, larynx,
trachea
• Pneumonia - inflammation or
infection of the lungs

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 79


Common Disorders of Respiratory
System
(continued)
• Emphysema (Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease – COPD) –
alveoli become stretched and stiff
preventing adequate exchange of
oxygen and carbon dioxide
• Asthma – spasms of bronchial tube
walls causing narrowing of air
passages usually due to allergies
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 80
Common Disorders of Respiratory
System
(continued)
• Allergy – reaction to substances that
leads to slight or severe response by
body.
• Influenza – highly contagious URI
• Pleurisy – inflammation of the pleura
surrounding the lungs

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 81


Common Disorders of Respiratory
System
(continued)
• Bronchitis - inflammation of the
bronchi
• Lung cancer - malignant tumors in
the lungs that destroy tissue

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 82


7.5.2 Discuss changes in the
respiratory system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 83


Changes in Respiratory System
Due To Aging
• Lung tissue becomes less elastic
• Respiratory muscles weaken
• Number of alveoli decrease
• Respirations increase
• Voice pitched higher and weaker due
to changes in larynx
• Chest wall and structures become
more rigid
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 84
7.5.3 List observations relating to the
respiratory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 85


Observations Of Respiratory System
• Rate and rhythm of respirations
• Respiratory secretions – character
• Character of cough
• Changes in skin color - pale or bluish
gray
• Temperature changes
• Difficulty breathing

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 86


Observations Of Respiratory System
(continued)
• Color of sputum
• Complaint of pain in
chest, back, sides
• Shortness of breath
• Noisy respirations
• Sneezing
• Gasping for breath
• Anxiety
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 87
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 88
7.6 Identify functions and structures of
the digestive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 89


Digestive System

• Also called the


gastrointestinal system
• Extends from mouth to
anus
• Functions
– Digestion
– Absorption
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 90
Digestive System
Structures
• Mouth
• Stomach – holds
food until
digestive juices
chemically break
it down into liquid
chyme
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 91
Digestive System
Structures
• Intestines
– small intestine
• about 20 ft. long
• food digestion completed
and nutrients absorbed into
bloodstream

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 92


Digestive System
Structures
(continued)
• Intestines
– large intestine
• 6 ft. long
• absorbs water, mineral
salts and vitamins
• secretes mucus to aid in
movement of feces
• has ability to add or
remove water from feces
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 93
7.2 Identify functions of the skeletal
system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 94


Digestive System

• Accessory Organs
– Liver – produces bile for
breakdown of fats
– Gallbladder – stores bile
produced by liver
– Pancreas - manufactures
insulin and digestive
enzymes
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 95
7.6.1 Discuss common disorders of the
digestive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 96


Common Disorders Of The
Digestive System
• Ulcer - a lesion or erosion of the
lining of the stomach or small
intestine
• Hepatitis – inflammation of the liver
• Cirrhosis – chronic disease of liver
where scar tissue replaces liver tissue
• Cholelithiasis - stones in the
gallbladder
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 97
Common Disorders Of The
Digestive System
(continued)

• Pancreatitis – inflammation of the


pancreas
• Cholecystitis – inflammation of the
gallbladder
• Colitis – inflammatory disease of the
colon

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 98


Common Disorders Of The
Digestive System
(continued)
• Hemorrhoids - enlarged veins in anal
area
• Constipation - difficulty in expelling
fecal material; incomplete or
infrequent bowel movements
• Diarrhea – watery bowel movements

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 99


Common Disorders Of The
Digestive System
(continued)
• Gastritis – inflammation of the
stomach lining
• Enteritis – inflammation of the
intestines
• Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the
stomach lining and intestines

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 100


Common Disorders Of The
Digestive System
(continued)
• Cancer - may occur anywhere along
digestive tract
• Hernia – protrusion of organ through
wall of cavity where it is normally
contained

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 101


Common Disorders Of The
Digestive System
(continued)
• Diverticulosis - chronic disease in
which many diverticula (small blind
pouches) form in the lining and wall of
the colon
• Diverticulitis – inflammation of
diverticula

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 102


7.6.2 Discuss changes in the digestive
system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 103


Changes In Digestive System
Due To Aging
• Decreased number of
taste buds
• Slowing of peristalsis
causing constipation
• Slower absorption of
nutrients
• Difficulty chewing and
swallowing
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 104
Changes In Digestive System
Due To Aging
(continued)
• Loss of bowel muscle tone
• Decrease in amount of
digestive enzymes and
saliva production
• Decreased appetite
• Loss of teeth
• Altered taste and smell
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 105
7.6.3 List observations relating to the
digestive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 106


Observations Of The Digestive
System
• Stool color and
consistency
• Abdomen – flat or
distended
• Date and time of last
bowel movement
• Nausea and vomiting

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 107


Observations Of The Digestive
System
• Blood in emesis or stool
• Complaint of pain in
stomach
• Difficulty swallowing
• Poor appetite
• Constipation and
diarrhea
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 108
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 109
7.7 Identify functions and structure of
the urinary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 110


Urinary System

• Also known as
excretory system

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 111


Urinary System
(continued)
• Functions
– Filter waste products from blood
– Produce urine
– Aid in maintenance of water
balance
– Regulate acid-base balance of
body
– Store urine until passed from body
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 112
Urinary System
Structure
• Kidneys:
– purplish brown, bean-
shaped organs
– located at back of
abdominal cavity
– weight 4-6 ounces each
– filter waste products from
blood
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 113
Urinary System
Structure
(continued)
• Ureters - tubes that carry
urine from kidneys to bladder
• Urinary bladder - muscular
sac that expands to hold
urine received from the
kidney
• Urethra - tube extending from
bladder to outside of body
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 114
7.7.1 Describe the characteristics of
normal urine.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 115


Urinary System

• Characteristics of normal
urine
– Pale yellow to amber
– Clear
– Acidic
– Quantity 1000-1500 ml.
per day
– pH 5.0 – 7.0
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 116
7.7.2 Discuss common disorders of the
urinary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 117


Common Disorders of
Urinary System

• Nephritis - inflammation
of kidney due to infection
• Cystitis - inflammation of
urinary bladder due to
infection
• Calculi – kidney or
bladder stones

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 118


Common Disorders of
Urinary System
(continued)

• Uremia - accumulation
of urea in blood due to
kidney disease
• Urethritis - inflammation
of the urethra

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 119


Common Disorders of
Urinary System
(continued)
• Kidney failure –
decreased ability of
kidney to filter waste
products from the blood
• Urinary incontinence
-inability to control
urination
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 120
Common Disorders of
Urinary System
(continued)
• UTI - Urinary Tract
Infection
• Retention - inability to
completely empty the
bladder
• Hematuria - blood in the
urine
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 121
7.7.3 Discuss changes of the urinary
system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 122


Changes In Urinary System
Due to Aging

• Decreased kidney size


• Decreased elasticity of ureters,
bladder and urethra
• Decreased muscle tone
• Diminished blood flow to kidneys

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 123


Changes In Urinary System
Due to Aging
(continued)
• Decreased ability of kidneys to
concentrate urine
• Difficulty emptying urinary bladder
• Enlarged prostate in males which
presses on urethra

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 124


7.7.4 List observations relating to the
urinary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 125


Observations of Urinary System

• Elevated temperature
• Sugar and/or acetone
in urine
• Urine color other than
clear, pale yellow

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 126


Observations of Urinary System
(continued)

• Complaint of burning
on urination
• Incontinence
• Polyuria - excessive
amounts of urine per
voiding

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 127


Observations of Urinary System
(continued)

• Hematuria - blood in urine


• Nocturia – excessive
urination at night
• Urine having strong odor
or cloudy appearance
• Voiding small amounts of
urine frequently
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 128
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 129
7.8 Identify functions of the endocrine
system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 130


Endocrine System (Glands)

• Endocrine glands secrete chemicals


called hormones directly into the
blood stream

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 131


Endocrine System (Glands)

• Functions of endocrine system


– secretes hormones that regulate
growth and development
– secretes hormones that regulate
metabolism and reproduction
– secretes hormones that regulate
the immune response

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 132


7.8.1 Discuss the most common
disorder of the endocrine system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 133


Diabetes Mellitus
• Diabetes mellitus – the most common
disorder of the endocrine system
– 80% of diabetics over 40
years of age
– incidence increases as
people age
– 5% of people over age 65
require treatment
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 134
Diabetes Mellitus
(continued)
• Diabetes mellitus – the most common
disorder of the endocrine system
– USA has highest morbidity
and mortality rates
– disorder of carbohydrate
metabolism with
decreased insulin
production from pancreas
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 135
Diabetes Mellitus
(continued)
• Uncontrolled diabetes leads
to damage to eyes, kidneys,
circulation
• Diabetes characterized by
consistent, elevated blood
glucose levels requiring oral
medication to stimulate
pancreas or insulin injections
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 136
Diabetes Mellitus

• Hypoglycemia
– low blood sugar

• Hyperglycemia
– high blood sugar

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 137


7.8.2 Discuss the changes in the
endocrine system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 138


Changes In The Endocrine System
Due To Aging
• Decrease in thyroid,
parathyroid, adrenal and
sex hormone secretions
• Decreased glucose
tolerance (Diabetes)
• Multiple physical changes
due to decrease of sex
hormones
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 139
7.8.3 List observations relating to
endocrine system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 140


Observation Of The
Endocrine System
• Irritability & restlessness
• Nervousness
• Confusion
• Weight loss
• Diaphoresis
• Edema
• Excessive thirst
• Sweet, fruity odor to breath
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 141
Observation Of The
Endocrine System
(continued)
• Complaint of headache
• Drowsiness
• Rapid, weak pulse
• Low blood pressure
• Nausea or vomiting
• Flushed, dry, hot skin
• Excessive urination
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 142
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 143
7.9 Identify functions of the two
major parts of the nervous
system.
7.9.1 Explain how damage to the
nervous system differs from
damage to other body systems.
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 144
Nervous System
• Controls and organizes all
body activities
• Divided into two parts
– Peripheral nervous
system
– Central nervous system
• brain
• spinal cord
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 145
Nervous System
(continued)

• Basic unit of structure -


neuron or nerve cell
– Most complex cell in
body
– Does not reproduce; if
destroyed, it is not
replaced
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 146
Nervous System
(continued)
• Nervous system enables you to
– Speak – Respond/move
– Hear – Learn
– Taste – Remember
– See
– Smell
– Think

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 147


Structure of Nervous System
• Central nervous system
– brain
• cerebrum
– largest portion of brain
– responsible for judgment,
memory, association and
discrimination
– divided into left and right
hemispheres
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 148
Structure of Nervous System
(continued)
• Central nervous system
(continued)
– brain
• cerebellum - responsible for
coordination of muscles,
balance and posture, and
muscle tone
• thalamus - monitors sensory
stimuli
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 149
Structure of Nervous System
(continued)
• Central nervous system (continued)
– brain
• hypothalamus - controls the
autonomic nervous system, the
cardiovascular system, body
temperature, appetite, water
balance, the GI system, sleep,
emotional state
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 150
Structure of Nervous System
(continued)
• Central nervous system (continued)
– brain
• pons - responsible for reflex
actions like chewing, and
production of saliva
• medulla oblongata - regulates
heartbeat, respirations,
swallowing, coughing, blood
pressure
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 151
Structure of Nervous System
(continued)
• Central nervous system (continued)
– spinal cord
• 18 inches long
• extends from brain to small of
back
• carries messages to and from
brain
• relays messages to body
through spinal nerves
• handles reflexes
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 152
Structure of Nervous System
(continued)
• Peripheral nervous system
– nerves leaving the
spinal cord and going
throughout the body
– digestion
– secretion of glands
– heart beat and breathing

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 153


7.9.2 Discuss common disorders or
conditions of the nervous
system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 154


Common Disorders Or Conditions Of
The Nervous System
• CVA – Stroke or
cerebrovascular accident -
damage to part of brain
due to blood clot or
hemorrhage cutting off
blood supply
• Head or spinal cord injuries

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 155


Common Disorders Or Conditions Of
The Nervous System
(continued)
• Dementia from nutritional
deficiencies, exposure to
toxic substances,
reduced blood flow to
brain or unknown causes
• Alzheimer’s disease -
common cause of
organic disease
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 156
Common Disorders Or Conditions Of
The Nervous System
(continued)
• Parkinson’s disease –
progressive nervous
disease associated with
destruction of brain cells
• Multiple sclerosis - loss of
covering around nerve
fibers interfering with nerve
impulses to and from brain
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 157
7.9.3 Discuss changes in the nervous
system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 158


Changes In The Nervous System
Due To Aging
• Loss of nerve/brain cells
• Increase in reaction time
• Changes in memory
• Receptors become less
sensitive, so require
increased stimuli for
response

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 159


Changes In The Nervous System
Due To Aging
(continued)
• Reduced sense of
touch and sensitivity
to pain
• Reduced blood flow
to brain
• Forgetfulness

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 160


7.9.4 List observations relating to the
nervous system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 161


Observations Of The Nervous
System
• Jerking motions
• Speech changes
• Complaint of
numbness
• Complaint of
dizziness
• Complaint of nausea

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 162


Observations Of The Nervous
System
(continued)
• Confusion
• Complaint of loss of
feeling on one side
• Incontinence
• Deranged thought
processes
• Tremors

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 163


Observations Of The Nervous
System
(continued)
• Muscular rigidity
• Complaint of
visual
disturbances or
changes
• Paralysis
• Seizures
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 164
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 165
7.10 Identify functions of the sensory
organs.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 166


Sensory Organs

• Part of nervous
system
• Sensory neurons
make one aware
of changes in the
environment
• Changes known
as stimuli
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 167
Sensory Organs
(continued)
• Functions of the sensory system
– Vision
– Hearing
– Smell
– Taste
– Touch

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 168


Sensory Organs
• Specialized functions
– Eye
• sense of sight
• receives images and
sends to brain
– Ear
• sense of hearing
• transmits sounds to
brain
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 169
Sensory Organs
(continued)
• Nose - (sense of smell)
– allows recognition of
odors and improves
taste of food
• Taste buds on tongue -
(sense of taste) – allows
recognition of sweet,
sour, bitter, salty
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 170
Sensory Organs
(continued)

• Skin - (sense of touch) –


allows recognition of
objects, pressure, heat,
cold, pain, and pleasure

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 171


7.10.1 Discuss common disorders of
the sensory organs.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 172


Common Disorders Of The
Sensory Organs
• Cataract - lens of eye loses its
transparency
• Glaucoma - increased pressure in the
eye due to an excess of aqueous
humor
• Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the
eyelid lining
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 173
Common Disorders Of The
Sensory Organs
(continued)
• Sty - tiny abscess at the base of an
eyelash
• Otitis media - infection of the middle
ear
• Deafness - partial or complete
hearing loss

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 174


7.10.2 Discuss changes in the sensory
organs due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 175


Changes In Sensory Organs
Due to Aging
• Lens in eye becomes thick and
cloudy
• Sclera becomes more yellow
• Less light reaches inner eye
• Hearing structures of ear become
less moveable
• Soft wax production decreases

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 176


Changes In Sensory Organs
Due to Aging
(continued)
• Progressive hearing loss of high-
pitched sounds occurs
• Peripheral vision and night vision
decreases
• Eye adjusts more slowly to changes
in distance
• Sense of smell decreases

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 177


Changes In Sensory Organs
Due to Aging
(continued)
• Sense of taste (sweet and salty first)
decreases
• Accommodation to light and dark
decreases
• Sense of touch, heat, cold, pain and
pressure awareness decreases

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 178


7.10.3 List observations relating to the
sensory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 179


Observations Of The
Sensory Organs
• Sclera (white of eye) suddenly
reddened or yellow
• Lens of eye becomes cloudy
• Complaint of pain in or around ear or
eye
• Red, swollen eye lid
• Drainage from eyes
• Complaint of difficulty seeing objects
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 180
Observations Of The
Sensory Organs
(continued)
• Comment that rainbows apparent
around lights
• Drainage from ear canal
• Complaint of feeling of fluid or noise
in ear
• Complaint of sudden flashes of light
or loss of sight
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 181
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 182
7.11 Identify functions of the
integumentary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 183


The Integumentary System (Skin)

• Skin is body’s largest


organ

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 184


The Integumentary System (Skin)
(continued)
• Functions
– Protects body from injury and
pathogens
– Regulates body temperature
– Eliminates waste through
perspiration
– Contains nerve endings for cold,
heat, pain, pressure and pleasure
– Stores fat and vitamins
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 185
The Integumentary System (Skin)
(continued)

• Hair and nails are


appendages of skin

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 186


7.11.1 Discuss common disorders of
the skin.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 187


Common Disorders Of The
Integumentary System
• Athletes foot - caused by a fungus,
involves toes and soles of feet
• Boils – caused by bacteria entering
hair follicles or sebaceous glands
• Eczema - red, itchy areas on the
surface of skin
• Skin cancer
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 188
Common Disorders Of The
Integumentary System
(continued)
• Dermatitis - inflammation of skin
• Tears – due to fragile skin
• Warts – viral infection of skin
• Burns – first, second, or third
degree, depending on amount of
skin tissue destroyed
• Bruising – due to fragile skin and/or
effects of medications
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 189
Common Disorders Of The
Integumentary System
(continued)
• Pressure sores - caused by poor
circulation resulting from pressure
that destroys skin and creates ulcer
• Shingles - skin eruption due to viral
infection
• Gangrene - necrosis of tissue cells
due to blockage of blood supply to
an area, or blockage from disease or
direct injury
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 190
7.11.2 Discuss changes in the
integumentary system due to
aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 191


Changes In The Integumentary
System Due To Aging
• Compromised circulation
• Less active glands
• Drying, thinning and scaling of skin
• Thickening of nails
• Loss of fat and elasticity of skin
• Loss of hair color and thinning of hair

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 192


Changes In The Integumentary
System Due To Aging
(continued)

• Development of skin tags,


moles and warts
• Folds, lines and wrinkles
in skin
• Nails harden, become
more brittle

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 193


7.11.3 List observations relating to the
integumentary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 194


Observations Of The Integumentary
System To Report
• Breaks
• Rash
• Complaint of itching
• Black and blue areas
• Redness
• Ulcers, sores or drainage

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 195


DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 196
7.12 Identify functions of the
reproductive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 197


Reproductive System
• Organs have dual functions
– Produce reproductive cells
– Produce hormones
responsible for sex
characteristics
• females - estrogen and
progesterone
• males - testosterone
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 198
7.12.1 Discuss common disorders of
the reproductive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 199


Common Disorders of the
Reproductive System
• Rectocele and cystocele – hernias
– rectocele - weakening of wall
between vagina and rectum
• constipation results
• hemorrhoids form
– cystocele - weakening of wall
between urethra and vagina
• causes urinary incontinence
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 200
Common Disorders of the
Reproductive System
(continued)
• Tumors - benign and malignant
tumors of uterus, ovaries and
breasts
– pap smear
– self breast exams
– biopsy

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 201


Common Disorders of the
Reproductive System
(continued)
• Sexually transmitted diseases
– gonorrhea
– syphilis
– herpes
– AIDS
• Prostatic hypertrophy -
enlargement of prostate gland
• Vaginitis
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 202
7.12.2 Discuss changes in the
reproductive system due to
aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 203


Changes In Reproductive System
Due To Aging
• Decreased size of testes
• Decreased production of sperm
• Delayed or less forceful ejaculation
• Slower sexual response
• Enlargement of prostate
• Decreased sexual desire

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 204


Changes In Reproductive System
Due To Aging
(continued)
• Sagging breasts
• Stopping of ovulation
• Decreased vaginal secretions
• Thinning of tissue of vaginal lining
• Decreased sex hormone production
• Loss of hair in vulva area

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 205


7.12.3 List observations relating to the
reproductive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 206


Observations of Reproductive
System

• Bleeding
• Complaint of pain
• Vaginal discharge
• Complaint of itching
• Lumps

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 207


DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 208
7.13 Define and discuss cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 209


Cancer
• Definition – abnormal
growth of cells that can
invade surrounding tissue
and spread to other parts
of body

• Cancer cells can originate


in any body tissue
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 210
Two Main Types Of Cancer

• Carcinoma • Sarcoma
– skin – bone
– lining of hollow – muscle
organs and – lymph system
passageways – cartilage

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 211


7.13.1 List two types of tumors and
explain how they are different.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 212


Tumor – Growth Of Abnormal Cells
• Benign tumor
– grows slowly
– localized area
• Malignant tumor
– grows slow or fast depending on
type of cancer
– invades other tissues and/or
travels to other parts of body
– causes death if not treated and
controlled
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 213
Cancer – Most Common Sites

• Skin • Breast
• Lungs • Prostate
• Colon • Uterus
• Rectum

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 214


7.13.2 List the seven warning signs of
cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 215


CAUTION=Seven Early Warning
Signs Of Cancer
• Change in bowel or bladder habits.
• A sore that does not heal
• Unusual bleeding or discharge
• Thickening or lump in breast or
elsewhere
• Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
• Obvious changes in a wart or mole
• Nagging cough or hoarseness
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 216
7.13.3 Describe the three most
common types of treatment for
cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 217


Standard Cancer Treatment
• Surgery
• Radiation therapy
• Chemotherapy
– oral
– intramuscular
– intravenous

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 218


7.13.4 Discuss the guidelines for care
of residents with cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 219


Guidelines For Care Of Residents
Being Treated For Cancer
• Fatigue - provide time for
rest and recognize
limitations

• Loss of appetite
– smaller meals
– nutritious snacks
– report requests for medications
promptly
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 220
Guidelines For Care Of Residents
Being Treated For Cancer
(continued)

• Skin – keep clean and dry


– eliminate irritation or
pressure
– report rashes, irritation,
broken areas

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 221


Guidelines For Care Of Residents
Being Treated For Cancer
(continued)

• Mouth - keep very clean


– provide frequent mouth
care
– encourage liquids

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 222


Guidelines For Care Of Residents
Being Treated For Cancer
(continued)
• Alopecia (loss of hair)
– emotional support needed
– help resident to select head
covering
• wig
• scarf
• turban
• hat
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 223
Guidelines For Care Of Residents
Being Treated For Cancer
(continued)
• Supportive actions
– be positive but realistic
– help to feel as
attractive as possible
– don’t offer false hope
– listen to concerns
– be understanding of
fears and frustrations
DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 224
7.13.5 List observations relating to
cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 225


Cancer – Observations To Report

• Fever • Behavioral
• Changes in changes
weight • Constipation
• Bleeding • Diarrhea
• Changes in vital • Nausea and
signs
vomiting
• Complaint of pain
• Sores in mouth

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 226


DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7 227