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Epitel ?

Avaskular Terletak pada membrana basalis Menutupi permukaan tubuh

Fungsi :
1. Proteksi (pd kulit) 2. Absorpsi (pd usus) 3. Sekresi (pd kelenjar) 4. Ekskresi (pd kelj. keringat) 5. Sensoris (neuroepitel) 6. Kontraktil (mioepitel) 7. Reproduksi (pd ovarium dan tub.seminiferi)

Pembagian Epitel :
1. Epitel Penutup (Covering Epitelium) 2. Epitel Kelenjar (Glandular Epitelium)

EPITEL PENUTUP

Menurut bentuk dibagi:


- pipih = squamous p & l > t, inti pipih - kubis = cuboidal p = l = t, inti bulat - silindris = columnar p & l < t, inti lonjong

Menurut susunan sel dibagi :


1. selapis = simple 1 lapisan sel 2. berlapis = stratified > 1 lapisan sel 3. berderet = pseudostratified 1 lapisan sel tetapi tinggi sel tidak sama shg tampak berlapis

Menurut bentuk dan susunannya :


* Epitel selapis : - Ep. selapis pipih - Ep. selapis kubis - Ep. selapis silindris * Epitel berlapis : - Ep. berlapis pipih - Ep. berlapis kubis - Ep. berlapis silindris - Ep. Peralihan * Epitel berderet : - Ep. berderet silindris

Epitel Selapis Pipih


- tdd 1 lapisan sel-sel pipih - Misal : > parietal layer capsula Bowman (ginjal) > sel-sel alveoli paru, dll -Nama khusus : > Endotel pd jantung & pembl. darah > Mesotel pd membran serosa(pleura, pericard & peritoneum)

Epitel selapis pipih

endotel

Epitel Selapis Kubis


- tdd 1 lapisan sel-sel kubis - Misal : > permukaan bebas ovarium > sebagian dari sel kelenjar, dll

Epitel Selapis Silindris


- tdd 1 lapisan sel-sel silindris - nuclear free zone (+) - ada 2 macam : 1. Epitel Selapis Silindris - Misal : > sebag. besar traktus digestivus > permukaan dalam uterus, dll

2. Epitel Selapis Silindris Bersilia - pd permukaan bebas sel terdapat silia a. Epitel selapis silindris dgn striated border tampak suatu garis/ pita tipis (mikrovili) pd intestinum b. Epitel selapis silindris dengan kinosilia dpt bergerak, ditandai basal granul pd dasar silia pd tuba falopii, sinus paranasalis - pd ep. silindris, terdapat beberapa sel kelenjar disebut sel goblet > bentuk: piala > letak: tersebar diantara sel ep. silindris

Terminal bar

Epitel selapis silindris dgn striated border

Epitel Berlapis Pipih


- Bentuk sel : > basal : silindris/kubis > tengah : polihedral > permukaan : pipih - Ada 2 macam : 1. Ep. Berlapis Pipih Tanpa Tanduk > sel-sel permukaan memiliki inti - Misal : rongga mulut & esofagus vagina, dll

2. Epitel Berlapis Pipih Bertanduk - sel-sel permukaan tdd sel mati (tidak berinti) - Misal : > epidermis kulit

Epitel Berlapis Kubis


- ep. berlapis, sel permukaannya kubis - misal : > sal. keluar kelenjar keringat > folikel de graff (ovarium), dll

Epitel Berlapis Silindris


- ep. berlapis, sel permukaannya silindris - ada 2 macam: 1.Epitel Berlapis Silindris Tak Bersilia > didapatkan pd tempat peralihan antara ep. selapis/berderet silindris dgn ep. berlapis pipih > misal : peralihan rektum ke anus

2. Epitel Berlapis Silindris Bersilia - pd permukaan bebas sel terdapat silia - misal : > permukaan nasal palatum molle > sebagian larynx, dll

Epitel Peralihan
- variasi ep. berlapis - pd ddg organ yang mampu teregang & kontraksi - tdd 3 macam sel : > sel basal > sel raket > sel payung - misal : > vesika urinaria > ureter, dll

Epitel Berderet
- terdapat 3 macam sel : > sel basal > sel bulat lonjong/fusiformis > sel silindris tinggi - nuclear free zone (+) - Ada 2 macam : 1.Ep. Berderet Silindris Tak Bersilia - misal : > pars cavernosa uretra pria > sal. keluar beberapa kelj.

2. Ep. Berderet Silindris Bersilia a. Epitel berderet silindris dengan stereosilia (non motile) pd duktus epididimis dan deferens b. Epitel berderet silindris dengan kinosilia (motile) pd cavum nasi

Bentuk-bentuk khusus epitel


1. Sel Epitel Berpigmen - mengandung butir-butir pigmen - pd retina 2. Sel Epitel Alat Indera (neuroepitel) - penerima rangsang sensoris - ep. pengecap - ep. pembau - ep. pendengaran

EPITEL KELENJAR - Berdasarkan cara menyalurkan sekret : 1. Eksokrin : sekret keluar melalui suatu saluran 2. Endokrin : sekret langsung ke pembuluh darah Kelenjar Eksokrin - tdd : > secretory unit sintesa sekret > tubular duct. mengeluarkan sekret dr secretory unit

- Klasifikasi kelj. Eksokrin * Berdasarkan ikut/tidaknya sel kelj. mjd sekret : 1. merokrin menghasilkan sekret tanpa merubah bentuk sel misal: kej. ludah, pancreas, dll 2. apokrin sebag. sel mjd sekret misal: kelj. keringat, prostat, dll 3. holokrin seluruh sel mjd sekret misal: kelj. lemak

* Berdasarkan jumlah sel : 1. unicelluler misal : sel goblet 2. multicelluler Kelenjar multicellular, dibagi : - Berdasarkan bentuk unit sekresinya : 1. tubular spt pipa 2. acinar bulat 3. alveolar spt kantung - Berdasarkan sifat sal. keluarnya: 1. simple tidak bercabang 2. compound bercabang

- Berdasarkan jenis sekretnya : 1. serous sekret jernih dan encer sitoplasma : granula zymogen (+) misal: kelj. parotis, pancreas, dll 2. mucous sekret licin & kental sitoplasma : vacuola mucigen (+) misal: kelj. Weber, brunner, dll 3. seromucous campuran misal: - kelj. sublingualis : serous<mucous - kelj. submaxilaris: serous>mucous

Kelenjar endokrin
- tidak ada saluran keluar - difusi ke kapiler - penyimpanan : 1. intracellular storage 2. ekstracellular storage folikel - sekret yang dihasilkan disebut : hormon

IKATAN ANTAR SEL/CELL JUNCTION


- Terminal Bar pd celah antar sel dekat permukaan bebas - Pd M.S. tampak berupa titik tebal didekat permukaan dr batas 2 sel yang bersebelahan atau berupa hexagonal line - Pd M.E. tampak suatu junctional complex, tdd 3 macam junction/bentuk ikatan

- Berdasarkan bentuk ikatan : 1. occludent/tight junction lapisan luar ddg sel saling melekat 2. adherens junction/desmosome cell coat space (+) tonjolan tonofilamen (+) 3. gap junction saluran penghubung (+)

Struktur permukaan bebas sel


1. mikrovili 2. stereosilia tonjolan sitoplasma tdk bergerak pd saluran kelamin pria 3. kinosilia silia yang dapat bergerak pd dasar silia terdapat basal granul=

kinetosome

REGENERASI SEL EPITEL


- Epitel kena trauma mengalami kerusakan daya regenerasi oleh sel-sel dibawahnya secara mitosis - misal : > kulit : dr sel-sel stratum germinativum

Figure 46. Electron micrograph of a small intestine epithelial cell after cryofracture. In the upper portion, the microvilli are fractured transversely; in the lower portion, the fracture crosses through the cytoplasm. In the middle, the membrane was cleaved showing grooves, which actually lie in the lipid layer of the plasmalemma. These grooves form the zonula occludens. x100,000. (Courtesy of P Pinto da Silva.)

Gap junction

Figure 47. Gap junction. A: Model of a gap junction in an oblique view. Channels (arrow) are formed by pairs of adjacent connexons, which are in turn composed of six protein subunits that span the lipid bilayer of each cell membrane. The channel measures about 1.5 nm in diameter, limiting the size of the molecules that can pass through it. Nutrients and signal molecules may be transported between cells without loss of material into the intercellular space. (Reproduced, with permission, from Staehelin LA, Hull BE: Junctions between living cells. Sci Am 1978;238:41. Copyright 1978 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.) B: Gap junction as seen on a cryofracture preparation. The junction appears as a plaquelike accumulation of intramembrane protein particles. x45,000. (Courtesy of P Pinto da Silva). C: Gap junction (arrow) as seen by transmission electron microscopy of a section of rat liver cells. At the junction, the apposed membranes are separated by a narrow space or gap of about 2 nm. x193,000. (Courtesy of MC Williams.)

Figure 48. Apical region of an intestinal epithelial cell seen with transmission electron microscopy. The terminal web is a network that contains mainly actin filaments. Filaments that constitute the core of the microvilli are clearly seen. An extracellular cell coat (glycocalyx) is bound to the plasmalemma of the microvilli. x45,000.

mikrovili

Figure 49. Electron micrograph of a section from the apical region of a cell from the intestinal lining showing cross-sectioned microvilli. In their interiors, note the microfilaments in a cross section. The surrounding unit membrane can be clearly discerned and is covered by a layer of glycocalyx, or cell coat. x100,000.

silia

Figure 410. Electron micrograph of the apical portion of a ciliated epithelial cell. Cilia are seen in longitudinal section. At the left, arrowheads point to the central and peripheral microtubules of the axoneme. The arrowhead at right indicates the plasma membrane surrounding the cilium. Each cilium has a basal body (B) from which it grows. Microvilli (MV) are shown. x59,000. Inset: Cilia in cross section. The 9 + 2 array of microtubules in each cilium is evident. x80,000. (Reproduced, with permission, from Junqueira LCU, Salles LMM: Ultra-Estrutura e Funo Celular. Edgard Blcher, 1975.)

Figure 411. Diagrams of simple epithelial tissue. A: Simple squamous epithelium. B: Simple cuboidal epithelium. C: Simple ciliated columnar epithelium. All are separated from the subjacent connective tissue by a basement membrane. In C, note the terminal bars that correspond in light microscopy to the zonula occludens and the zonula adherens of the junctional complex.

Figure 414. The simple squamous epithelium that covers the body cavities (the abdominal cavity in this case) is called mesothelium. PT stain. Medium magnification.

Figure 421. Formation of glands from covering epithelia. Epithelial cells proliferate and penetrate connective tissue. They mayor may notmaintain contact with the surface. When contact is maintained, exocrine glands are formed; without contact, endocrine glands are formed. The cells of endocrine glands can be arranged in cords or in follicles. The lumens of the follicles accumulate large quantities of secretions; cells of the cords store only small quantities of secretions in their cytoplasm. (Redrawn and reproduced, with permission, from Ham AW: Histology, 6th ed. Lippincott, 1969.)

Figure 422. Principal types of exocrine glands. The part of the gland formed by secretory cells is shown in black; the remainder shows the ducts. The compound glands have branching ducts.

Figure 423. Section of the secreting portion of a mammary gland; apocrine secretion is characterized by the discharge of the secretion product with part of the cytoplasm (arrows). PSH stain. Medium magnification.

Figure 424. Ion and fluid transport can occur in different directions, depending on which tissue is involved. A: The direction of transport is from the lumen to the blood vessel, as in the gallbladder and intestine. This process is called absorption. B: Transport is in the opposite direction, as in the choroid plexus, ciliary body, and sweat gland. This process is called secretion. Note that the presence of occluding junctions is necessary to maintain compartmentalization and consequent control over ion distribution.

Figure 425. Diagram of the ultrastructure of a proximal convoluted tubule cell of the kidney. Invaginations of the basal cell membrane outline regions filled with elongated mitochondria. This typical disposition is present in ion-transporting cells. Interdigitations from neighboring cells interlock with those of this cell. Protein being absorbed from the lumen by pinocytosis is digested by lysosomes. Sodium ions diffuse passively through the apical membranes of these cells. These ions are then actively transported out of the cells by Na+/K+-ATPase located in the basolateral membranes of the cells. Energy for this sodium pump is supplied by nearby mitochondria.

Figure 426. Serous secretory cells of the pancreas disposed in acini. One acinus is depicted by a broken line. The basophilic basal region of each cell is rich in RNA and the apex contains light-stained secretory vesicles. PT stain. Medium magnification.

Figure 427. Diagram of a serous (pancreatic acinar) cell. Note its evident polarity, with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum in the basal region and the Golgi complex and zymogen granules are in the apical region. To the right is a scale indicating the approximate time necessary for each step of synthesis and secretion.

Figure 428. Electron micrograph of a serous (pancreatic acinar) cell. x13,000. (Courtesy of KR Porter.)

Figure 430. Section of intestinal villi stained by the PAS technique, a procedure that detects some polysaccharides. Note the positive reaction in the goblet cells and brush border, which consists of microvilli associated with the sugar-rich cell coat. Counterstained with hematoxylin. Medium magnification.

Figure 431. Diagram of a mucus-secreting intestinal goblet cell showing a typically constricted base, where the nucleus, mitochondria, and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) are located. The protein part of the glycoprotein complex is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. A well-developed Golgi complex is present in the supranuclear region. To the right is a scale indicating the approximate time necessary for each step of synthesis and secretion. (Redrawn after Gordon and reproduced, with permission, from Ham AW: Histology, 6th ed. Lippincott, 1969.)

Figure 433. Mucous secretory gland of the esophagus whose cells have a clear cytoplasm and basal dark-stained nuclei. The lumen of the gland is clearly seen (short arrows). The long arrow indicates a secretory duct.

Figure 216. The endoplasmic reticulum is an anastomosing network of intercommunicating channels and sacs formed by a continuous membrane. Note that the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (foreground) is devoid of ribosomes, the small dark dots that are present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (background). The cisternae of the smooth reticulum are tubular, whereas in the rough reticulum they are flat sacs.

Figure 218. The transport of proteins across the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The ribosomes bind to mRNA, and the signal peptide is initially bound to a signal-recognition particle (SRP). Ribosomes bind to the RER by interacting with the SRP and a ribosomal receptor. The signal peptide is then removed by a signal peptidase (not shown). These interactions cause the opening of a pore through which the protein is extruded into the RER.

Figure 221. Three-dimensional representation of a Golgi complex. Through transport vesicles that fuse with the Golgi cis face, the complex receives several types of molecules produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). After Golgi processing, these molecules are released from the Golgi trans face in larger vesicles to constitute secretory vesicles, lysosomes, or other

Figure 223. Main events occurring during trafficking and sorting of proteins through the Golgi complex. Numbered at the left are the main molecular processes that take place in the compartments indicated. Note that the labeling of lysosomal enzymes starts early in the cis Golgi network. In the trans Golgi network, the glycoproteins combine with specific receptors that guide them to their destination. On the left side of the drawing is the returning flux of membrane, from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum. (Redrawn and reproduced, with permission, from Junqueira LC, Carneiro J: Biologia Celular e Molecular, 6th ed. Editora Guanabara, 1997.)

Figure 227. Current concepts of the functions of lysosomes. Synthesis occurs in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and the enzymes are packaged in the Golgi complex. Note the heterophagosomes, in which bacteria are being destroyed, and the autophagosomes, with RER and mitochondria in the process of digestion. Heterophagosomes and autophagosomes are secondary lysosomes. The result of their digestion can be excreted, but sometimes the secondary lysosome creates a residual body, containing remnants of undigested molecules. In some cells, such as osteoclasts, the lysosomal enzymes are secreted to the extracellular environment. Nu, nucleolus.