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Operations Management

Chapter 2 Operations Strategy in a Global Environment


PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 6e Operations Management, 8e

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Some Multinational Corporations


Company Citicorp ColgatePalmolive Dow Chemical Gillette Honda IBM
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Home Country USA USA USA USA Japan USA

% Sales Outside Home Country 34 72 60 62 63 57

% Assets Outside Home Country 46 63 50 53 36 47

% Foreign Workforce NA NA NA NA NA 51
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Reasons to Globalize
Reasons to Globalize
Tangible Reduce costs (labor, taxes, tariffs, etc.) Reasons Improve supply chain Provide better goods and services Understand markets Intangible Learn to improve operations Reasons Attract and retain global talent

Figure 2.1
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Reduce Costs
Foreign locations with lower wage rates can lower direct and indirect costs

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Improve the Supply Chain


Locating facilities closer to unique resources

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Provide Better Goods and Services


Objective and subjective characteristics of goods and services
On-time deliveries

Cultural variables
Improved customer service

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Understand Markets
Interacting with foreign customer and suppliers can lead to new opportunities
Cell phone design from Europe
Extend the product life cycle

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Learn to Improve Operations


Remain open to the free flow of ideas
General Motors partnered with a Japanese auto manufacturer to learn Scandinavian design ideas have been used to improve equipment design and layout

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Attract and Retain Global Talent


Offer better employment opportunities
Better growth opportunities and insulation against unemployment Relocate unneeded personnel to more prosperous locations Incentives for people who like to travel
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Cultural and Ethical Issues


Cultures can be quite different Attitudes can be quite different towards
Punctuality Thievery

Lunch breaks
Environment Intellectual property
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Bribery
Child labor

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Developing Missions and Strategies


Mission statements tell an organization where it is going The Strategy tells the organization how to get there

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Mission
Mission - where are you going?
Organizations purpose for being
Answers What do we provide society? Provides boundaries and focus

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Hard Rock Caf


Our Mission: To spread the spirit of Rock n Roll by delivering an exceptional entertainment and dining experience. We are committed to being an important, contributing member of our community and offering the Hard Rock family a fun, healthy, and nurturing work environment while ensuring our long-term success.

Figure 2.2
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Strategic Process
Organizations Mission

Functional Area Missions

Marketing
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Operations

Finance/ Accounting
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Strategy
Action plan to achieve mission

Functional areas have strategies


Strategies exploit opportunities and strengths, neutralize threats, and avoid weaknesses

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Strategies for Competitive Advantage


Differentiation better, or at least different

Cost leadership cheaper


Quick response more responsive

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Competing on Differentiation
Uniqueness can go beyond both the physical characteristics and service attributes to encompass everything that impacts customers perception of value
Safeskin gloves leading edge products

Hard Rock Cafe theme experience

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Competing on Cost
Provide the maximum value as perceived by customer. Does not imply low quality.
Southwest Airlines secondary airports, no frills service, efficient utilization of equipment

Wal-Mart small overheads, shrinkage, distribution costs

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Competing on Response
Flexibility is matching market changes in design innovation and volumes
Institutionalization at Hewlett-Packard

Reliability is meeting schedules


German machine industry

Timeliness is quickness in design, production, and delivery


Johnson Electric, Bennigans, Motorola

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Elements of Operations Management Strategy


Low-cost product Product-line breadth Technical superiority Product characteristics/differentiation Continuing product innovation Low-price/high-value offerings Efficient, flexible operations adaptable to consumers Engineering research development Location Scheduling
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Product Life Cycle


Introduction Growth
Practical to change price or quality image
Strengthen niche

Maturity
Poor time to change image, price, or quality
Competitive costs become critical Defend market position

Decline
Cost control critical

Company Strategy/Issues

Best period to increase market share


R&D engineering is critical

CD-ROM
Internet Color printers Drive-through restaurants

Fax machines

Sales

Flat-screen monitors

DVD

3 1/2 Floppy disks

Figure 2.5
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Product Life Cycle


Introduction
Product design and development critical Frequent product and process design changes Short production runs High production costs Limited models Attention to quality

Growth
Forecasting critical Product and process reliability Competitive product improvements and options

Maturity
Standardization Less rapid product changes more minor changes Optimum capacity

Decline
Little product differentiation Cost minimization

OM Strategy/Issues

Overcapacity in the industry


Prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin Reduce capacity

Increasing stability of Increase capacity process

Shift toward product focus


Enhance distribution

Long production runs


Product improvement and cost cutting

Figure 2.5
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Strategy Development and Implementation


Identify critical success factors Build and staff the organization Integrate OM with other activities
The operations managers job is to implement an OM strategy, provide competitive advantage, and increase productivity
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