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Basic Biomechanics, (5th edition)

by Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

Chapter 10

Linear Kinematics of Human Movement

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Linear Kinematic Quantities


How do we define kinematics? the study of geometry, form, pattern, or sequencing of movement with respect to time without reference to the force the appearance of a motion

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Distance and Displacement Speed and Velocity

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Linear Kinematic Quantities


What is linear displacement? change in location
the directed distance from initial to final location vector quantity

measured in units of cm, m, km


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Linear Kinematic Quantities

Finish

Start

The distance that a skater travels may be measured from the track on the ice. The skaters displacement is measured in a straight line from start to finish.
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Linear Kinematic Quantities


What is linear velocity?
the rate of change in location/ displacement displacement velocity = time vector quantity
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d v=t

m measured in units of s

Linear Kinematic Quantities


Current velocity

Swimmers velocity

Resultant velocity

The velocity of a swimmer in a river is the vector sum of the velocities of swimmer and current.
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Quiz 1:
A swimmer orients herself perpendicular to the parallel banks of a river. If the swimmers velocity is 2 m/s and the velocity of the current is 0.5 m/s, what will be the swimmers resultant velocity? How far will the swimmer actually have to swim to get to the other side if the banks of the river are 50 m apart?
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Linear Kinematic Quantities


What is acceleration?
the rate of change in linear velocity

change in velocity acceleration = time v2-v1 a= t m measured in units of s


2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Example:

A soccer ball is rolling down a field. At t = 0, the ball has an instantaneous velocity of 4 m/s. If the acceleration of the ball is constant at 0.3 m/s2, how long will it take the ball to come to a complete stop?

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Linear Kinematic Quantities

Increasing velocity Negative acceleration

Increasing velocity Positive acceleration

Decreasing velocity Positive acceleration Motion in a negative direction

Decreasing velocity Negative acceleration


Motion in a positive direction

Acceleration may be positive, negative, or equal to zero, based on the direction of motion and the direction of the change in velocity.
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Kinematics of Projectile Motion


What is a projectile?
(a body in free fall that is subject only to the forces of gravity and air resistance)

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Kinematics of Projectile Motion


Why do we analyze the horizontal and vertical components of projectile motion separately?
(the vertical component is influenced by gravity and the horizontal component is not)
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Kinematics of Projectile Motion


Two balls - one dropped and one projected horizontally from the same height:

Both land at the same time since gravity affects their vertical velocities equally.
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Kinematics of Projectile Motion


What is the effect of gravity?
(The force of gravity produces a constant acceleration of -9.81 m/s2 on bodies near the surface of the earth.)

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Kinematics of Projectile Motion


apex

The pattern of change in the vertical velocity of a projectile is symmetrical about the apex.
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

gravity

Vertical velocity decreases as the ball rises and increases as the ball falls due to the influence of gravitational force.

Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory


What factors influence the trajectory (flight path) of a projectile?
projection angle - the direction of projection with respect to the horizontal

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory


This scaled diagram shows the size and shape of trajectories for an object projected at 10 m/s at different angles.
5

Maximum height (m)

4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Range (distance) (m)

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Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory


The Effect of Projection Angle on Range (Relative Projection Height = 0) Projection Projection Speed Angle Range (m/s) (degrees) (m)

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
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10 20 30 40 45 50 60 70 80

3.49 6.55 8.83 10.04 10.19 10.04 8.83 6.55 3.49

Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory


What factors influence the trajectory (flight path) of a projectile?
projection speed - the magnitude of projection velocity

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory


What factors influence the trajectory (flight path) of a projectile? relative projection height - the difference between projection height and landing height

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory


FACTORS INFLUENCING PROJECTILE MOTION (Neglecting Air Resistance) Variable Factors of Influence Initial vertical velocity Flight time Relative projection height Horizontal velocity Horizontal displacement Initial vertical velocity Vertical displacement Relative projection height Initial vertical velocity Relative projection height Trajectory Initial speed Projection angle Relative projection height
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Analyzing Projectile Motion


The Equations of Constant Acceleration

v2 = v1 + at d = v1t + at2

(1)
(2)

v22 = v12 + 2ad

(3)

These equations may be used to relate linear kinematic quantities whenever acceleration (a) is a constant, unchanging value.
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Example:

An archery arrow is shot with a speed of 45 m/s at an angle of 10. How far horizontally can the arrow travel before hitting a target at the same height from which it was released?

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Solution:
vertical component: v2 = v1 + at 0 = (45 m/s)(sin 10) + (-9.81 m/s2)t t = 0.8 s Since t is time to maximum height, total flight time is 2t, or 1.59 s. horizontal component: d = v1t + 1/2at2 d = (45 m/s)(cos 10)(1.59 s) d = 70.6 m
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Example:

A badminton shuttlecock is struck by a racquet at a 35 angle, giving it an initial speed of 10 m/s. How high will the shuttlecock go? How far will it travel horizontally before being contacted by the opponent's racquet at the same height from which it was projected?

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Vertical component: v22 = v12 + 2ad 0 = ((10 m/s)(sin 35))2 + 2(-9.81 m/s2)d d = 1.68 m Solve for flight time: v2 = v1 + at 0 = (10 m/s)(sin 35) + (-9.81 m/s2)t t = 0.585 s Total flight time is 2t, or 1.17 s
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Horizontal component: d = v1t + 1/2at2 d = (10 m/s)(cos 35)(1.17 s) d = 9.58 m

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Chapter 10

Linear Kinematics of Human Movement

2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.