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Training and Development


In future, the success of enterprises ll depend upon the revolutionary training and development system in human resource management. As we live and work in the world of knowledge and skill, every human activity need up-to-date knowledge and required skills to perform it.


What is training?
Training is basically a systematic procedure for transferring technical knowhow to the employees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for doing particular jobs.

Features Training enhances the skills and capabilities of the individuals in an organization. The need for training can be emphasized in various work situations, such as in harnessing skills for existing jobs, planning out ones future job profile, elevating employees performance and so on.

For training to be successful, the employees have to be convinced of its utility and effectiveness.
A successful training program improves the performance of an employee which in turn enhances organizational performance. Training program should attempt to bring about positive changes in the-knowledge ,skills and attitude of the workforce.

It depends upon the top managements attitude and organizational culture to make the training programme a success and contribute to the overall development of the organization. The training and development function in an organization has gained a lot of importance due to advancement in technology and changes in market force.

DefinitionsAccording to Edwin B. Flippo; Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.

According to Michael Armstrong; Training is the systematic development of the knowledge,skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.

Training policy?
Every organization has well established and prescribed
training policy for the training of employees.


This policy depicts the top managements philosophy regarding training of employees. This training policy includes the rules and regulations,procedure,budget,standards and conditions regarding training. This policy depicts the intention of the company to train and develop its personnel. It provide guidelines for training programme.

Components of trainingComponents of training includesALL THAT MAKE-UP A TRAINING PROGRAMME. Important components are-

Trained & Professional trainer

Training policy

Top mgt.s Support and commitment

Willing trainee

Components Of training

Different methods Of training And courses

Training procedure Including feedback and evaluation

Training materials Posters, pictures Charts,slides Graphs, equipments

Venue & The duration of The training

Some important points regarding training.?

In the organization employee training and development is essential part of planning activity so that learning and growth can take place in the organization. Employees should get opportunity of training. It should not be based on favoritism. There should be sufficient budget for training and development programme.

Its importance should be recognized and never be underestimated as sheer waste of time. The learner should be motivated It should be an endless activity for all. It should be structured and be managed in such a way that learning takes place properly.

It should hold humanistic values. it means it should not be imposed, not criticized, no negative reinforcement be give it should be participative. participation of employees should be encouraged in designing complete training programme because it is a team work and mutual work can only make it a success. It should be evaluated in terms of practicality, acquiring of skills, usefulness in job, in terms of cost,time,in terms of effectiveness and changed behavior.

Training &Development efforts in HR should be oriented towards the following.

Organizations should create assessment centers for training and development. These centers must be able to assess the need for training and development programmes in jobs and impart the required training to the various categories of the employees. Organizations should set up suitable training and development units for skills and knowledge development with competent persons.

Business schools should modify their curriculum to include programmes related to the followingcommunication management, time mgt., conflict management, self managementfinance,health,work and family, office management-record keeping, report writing. From time to time, review meetings should be to measure the gain through training and development schemes.
Organizations should be open to suggestions and active participation of employees should be encouraged for decision making.

Purpose of training programmes

1.Improving employee performanceAs it bridges the gap between the actual and expected performance of the employees. 2.Updating employee skills-to adopt any technological advances. 3.Avoiding managerial obsolescence

4.Retaining and motivating employees

5.Creating an efficient and effective organization

6.It helps organization to absorb changes taking place in the environment and reduce resistance to change.

7.Training increases the productivity and level of performance of employees. 8.It aims to improve the quality of task.

9.To train employees in a particular culture of the company.

Importance of training Trained workers can work more efficiently. There will be fewer accidents. as training improves the knowledge of employees regarding the use of machines and equipments. Wastage is eliminated to a large extent as they use tools, machines in a proper way.

Training can contribute to higher production, fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower labor turnover. It makes the relationship between management and employee cordial.

It helps in introducing and adopting latest technology in order to absorb change.

Training helps an employee to move from one organization to another easily. he can be more mobile and pursue career goals easily. Training makes employees more loyal to an organization. they will be less inclined to leave the unit where there are growth opportunities. training enables employees to secure promotions easily. they can realize their career goals comfortably.

Economical supervision-as there is less requirement for supervision for trained employees.
Uniform procedures-with the help of training the best available methods can be standardized and made available to all employees

Areas of training1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Company policy and procedures Skill based training Human relations training-interpersonal skills, leadership styles, disciplinary procedure etc. Problem solving training from simple operational problems to major decision making problems. Supervisory training-to enable the person to perform managerial and supervisory functions such as planning,organising,directing and controlling as employees move ahead in their career paths to assume positions of increased responsibility.

Training loses its meaning if the learning is not applicable at work..



1. Voluntary consent of participants-they should not be forced to join these activities. 2. Discrimination-age, gender,race or related factors should not be used as barriers to determine who receives training. 3. cost effectiveness

Types of training
Orientation training or induction training-to put the new recruits at ease and to make him introduced with key personnel and informed about company policies, procedures and benefits.

Refresher training

Job-instruction training-including four steps:

1. Orient trainees to job situation by providing them with an overview of the job. 2. Demonstrate the entire job 3. Ask trainees to do the job 4. Evaluate employee performance periodically and offer supplementary training if necessary

Apprenticeship training-commonly found in industries such as carpentry and plumbing, apprentices are trainees here who spend a prescribed period of time working with an experienced, master worker.

Training for promotion

Philosophy of training
Training efforts must invariably follow certain learning oriented guidelines1. Modeling-the selected model should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. if we want to change people, it would be a good idea to have videotapes of people showing the desired behavior.

2.Motivation-when the employee is motivated, he pays attention to what is being said, done and presented.

3.Reinforcement positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviours.people avoid certain behaviors that invite criticism and punishment. learn best if feedback is given as soon as possible after training as every employee wants to know what is expected from him and how well he is doing. 5.Spaced practice-learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time.

6.Whole learning-the employees learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the big picture.

7.Applicability of training-training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs.

8.enviornment-it is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate ,well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal.

Retraining is the process of learning a new skill or trade, often in response to a change in the economic environment. Generally it reflects changes in profession choice rather than an "upward" movement in the same

Importance of training objective

The resources are always limited and training objectives actually lead the design of training program. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a no. of stakeholders perspectives1. 2. 3. 4. Trainer Trainee Designer Evaluator

Benefits for Trainees are Helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise Helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make training successful.

Benefits for trainer Helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Now trainer can establish relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.

Benefits for designer

Being aware of objective, he can design the training package accordingly. Now he can look for training methods, training equipments and training content accordingly to achieve that objective. Without any guidance, he cant design. Example-Training objective is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Now the designer ll include-ways to improve interpersonal skills, verbal and non-verbal language etc.

Benefit for evaluator

The objective provides him a standard for evaluation of progress of trainee.

Models of trainingTraining is a transforming process that requires some input and it turn it produce output in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The three models of training are1. The system model 2. Instructional system development model 3. Transitional model

The system model of trainingIt consists of five phases which should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. the training should achieve the purpose of helping the employees to perform their work to required standards. The steps areEVALUATE EXECUTE DEVELOP DESIGN ANALYSE

1. 2.




ANALYSE-Analyze and identify the training needswhat do they need to learn. DESIGN-It requires developing the objective of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. DEVELOP-Listing the activities in the training program that ll assist the participants to learn, examining training material, selecting delivery method, validating information to be imparted to. EXECUTE-Its the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. EVALUATE-Evaluating each phase to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance.

Instructional system development model

This model was made to answer the training problems. In it training objectives are designed on the basis of job responsibilities and job description. And on the basis of designed objective ,performance is measured. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. This model comprises of five stages-






1. 2.




ANALYSIS-This phase consist of training need assesment,job analysis and target audience analysis. Planning-This phase consist of setting goal of the learning,outcome,types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program. DEVELOPMENT-This phase translates design decisions into training material. it consists of developing course material, including handouts,workbooks,visual aids etc. EXECUTION-it focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,equipments,benches,podiums,food facilities, cooling lighting ,parking and other training accessories. EVALUATION-evaluating whole process.

Transitional model of training

Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. the other loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner lop is executed.









VISION-It focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tell that where the organization sees itself few years down the line.
MISSION-explain the reason of organizational existance.the reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire and inform the employees regarding the organization. VALUES-vision is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. it reflects the deeply hold values of the organization. foe example-social responsibility, excellent customer service